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Full text of "Historical sketches of the India missions of the Presbyterian church in the United States of America : known as the Lodiana, the Farrukhabad, and the Kolhapur missions : from the beginning of the work, in 1834, to the time of its fiftieth anniversary, in 1884"

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HISTOEY 



'k:v. missions 

INDIA. 




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PRINCETON, N. J. *^ 



Presented by~Y^ey\^ . 'o'. £>. \J\^\J\r\^00\p 

BV 2570 .H6 1886 c.l 
Presbyterian Church in the 

U.S.A. Board of Foreign 
Historical sketches of the 

India missions of the 



/ 

HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



OF THE 




INDIA MISSIONS 



* DEC.22 1911 



OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA, 

KNOWN AS THE LODIANA, THE FARRUKHABAD, 
AND THE KOLHAPUR MISSIONS; 

From the beginning of the work, in 18;i4, 
To the time of its fiftieth Anniversanj, in 1884. 



ALLAHABAD : 

PRINTED AT THE ALLAHABAD MISSION PRESS. 
1886. 



PREFACE. 



On November 5th 1834, Rev. John C. Lowrie, the first 
missionary of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America to India, reached Lodiana and founded the 
Mission, now so well known as the Lodiana Mission. Since 
then the Mission has extended its borders as far north as 
Peshawar and as far south as Kolhapur. For convenience 
of administration, three missions, known as the Lodiana, 
Farrukhabad and Kolhapur, have been organized — the 
members of these missions being aj^pointed and supported 
by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America. The ordained 
foreign and native ministers, with representatives from the 
churches, constitute the Synod of India. 

At the close of the half- century since the founding of 
the Mission, it was thought fitting that the members of the 
Missions and of the Synod should come together at Lodiana 
and commemorate that event. Accordingly the Synod of 
India at its meeting in 1883 appointed a committee to make 
arrangements for such a commemoration. The following 
programme, drawn up by the committee and followed in 
the main, will show the form the commemoration took. 

Programme of the Semi- Centennial Celebration of the 
founding of the American Presbyterian Mission in India, 
held at Lodiana, from the Srd to the 7th of December 1884. 

First Day. 

1. The Founding of our Missions in India : by the Rev. 

J. C. Lowrie, if present. 

2. Historical Sketches of the same : — 

(1) Of the Lodiana Mission : by the Rev. J. Newton. 

(2) Of the Farrukhabad Mission : by the Rev. J. F. 

Holcomb. 

(3) Of the Kolhapur Mission : by the Rev. Q. W. 

Seiler. 



U PREFACE. 

3. Letters from Retired Missionaries : to be collected and 

presented by the Hev. W. Calderwood. 

4. Our Deceased Missionaries, male and female : by the 

Kev. J. S. Woodside. 

5. An EveniiKj Conference: Subject. — Adaptation of Pres- 

byterianism to the Organization and Establishment of 
Churches in India : to be conducted by the llev. W. 
J. 1*. Morrison. 

Second Day. 

1. Our Educational Work : — 

(1) For Boys and Men : by the Rev. C. W. Forman ; 

(2) For Native Christian Girls : by the Rev. D. 

Ilerron ; 

(3) For European and Eurasian Girls : by Mrs. Scott ; 

(4) For Non-Christian Girls : by Mrs. Kelso ; 

(5) Zenana work, and other Evangelistic work among 

Women : by Mrs. Hull, Mrs. Chatterjee, and 
Miss Belz ; 
(G) Sunday Schools : by the Rev. T. Tracy. 

2. An Et'cnlnr/ Conference, on Spiritual Life in the Chur- 

ches : to be conducted by the Rev. G. II. Ferris. 

Third Day. 

1. Preaching to the Il'i'athen : by the Rev. K. C. Chatterjee, 

and the Rev. J. M. Goheen. 

2. General Medical Work ; including practice in Leper 

and r»lind Asylums : by the Rev. A. Rudolph. 

3. Medical work among Women and Children : by Misa 

Seward, M. D. 

4. Christian Colonization : by the Rev. M. M. Carleton, 

6. Literary Work : including Bible Translation and Revi- 
sion, and the Circulation of Religious Books and 
TVacts : by the Rev J.J. Lucas. 

6. The Work of the Laymen of our Churches : by George 

S. Lewis, Esq., B.A., E. A. C. 

7. An FA'on'nuj Conference: SrnjKCT. — Persecutions and 

Sufferings endured by Converts for Christ's sake : to 
bo conducted by the Rev. Golokuath. 



PREFACE. Ul 

Fourth Day. 

A Christian Meld Day, with exercises in Hindustani, as 
follow'i : — 

At 10 c. m. A Praise and Prayer Meeting, to be con- 
ducted by the Eev. Mohan Lai. 

At 11 «. m. Voluntary Addresses on our Christian Re- 
sponsibilities : limited to 10 minutes, each. 

1 2^. m. Eetreshments. 

3 jo. w. Consecration Service: to be conducted by the 
Rev. A. Rudolph. 

Concluding Service. 

Sunday, 4: p. m. The Lord's Supper. 
Addresses, (1.) In English : by the Rev. J. C. Lowrie; 
(alternate, the Rev. J. Newton.) 

(2.) In Hindustani : by the Rev. Groloknath. 
The elements to be dispensed by the Rev. C. W. Forman. 

Dr. Lowrie, the founder of the Mission, was not able to be 
present. In reply to the invitation of the Missions, he sent 
a letter which was read at the opening meeting and from 
which we give an extract. " Greatly indeed would I prize 
the privilege of being present at your meetings. The hope 
of it has been much in my thought, and has deeply moved 
my feelings. This coming Anniversary is so connected 
with most tender memories of the past, with pleasant 
recollections of my intercourse with you all personally, with 
earnest sympathy with you in your great work and in the 
important questions which now call for your consideration, 
and with thankfulnes to God for the way by which He has 
led us all in his service in all these years, that I can hardly 
bear to think of not being one of your goodly company 
when you meet together." 

In the Appendix will be found an interesting account 
by Dr. Lowrie of the Lodiana Mission in its early days. 
The Historical Sketches of the three Missions are given, 
with few changes, as they were read. It was thought 
best to give these in one volume — to be followed, perhaps, 
by two volumes containing the other papers read. 

Of the semi-centennial celebration itself, a few words may 
not be out of place. The meetings were held in the Mission 



IV PRF.FAOK. 

Church at Lodiana and occupied the greater part of five 
days. Ovor one hundred persons, who might rightly bo 
regarded as members, were present. Of tliese about sixty 
were Americans and Europeans, most of them missionaries, 
male and female members of the three Missions. Besides 
these, there were representatives of other Missions who were 
warmly welcomed, most of whom took part in the services. 
From an interesting account of the celebration by Mrs. 
M. J. Wyckoif of Jullundcr, we take the following extract: 

" We came to Lodiana two weeks ago, and every day has 
been fraiiglit with interest, particularly the first four, com- 
memorating the founding of this Mission. As we entered 
the spacious grounds, and saw the word "Welcome" 
inscribed in scarlet letters upon a blue ground, placed 
between the suggestive numbers 18^34 and 1884, we could 
not but rejoice, and heartily wish that all the friends in 
America, who are so deeply interested in this Mission, 
could be with us on this grand and jubilant occasion, and 
behold with their own eyes what God hath wrought in this 
far ofT heathen land. The courtyard was the scene of many 
happy meetings and hearty greetings, when missionaries 
from the sea to the Himalayas met here the first morning 
of the Jubilee. Here, too, were a number of Native con- 
verts from Mahommedanism and Hindooism, now faithful 
followers of the Lord Jesus, and efficient labourers in the 
great work of preaching Christ to their benighted country- 
men. 

After breakfast the sound of the bell was heard, and 
we all repaired to the neat Mission Church, which 
had been enlarged and beautified for the occasion. The 
opening services were solemn and impressive. The three 
oldest members of the Mission, two foreign and one 
native, sat upon the platform. One of them, the Kev. J. 
Newton, is passed his three score and ten. He has been 
on the field from the beginning. Rev. Mr. Eudolph is not 
much his junior, as his white locks plainly testify. Rev. 
Mr. Golaknath, the Native member of the honored trio, 
was tlie first convert baptized in this Mission. He left his 
home and friends in Bengal in early manhood, and soon 
after cast in his lot with tlie people of God in this then but 
little known frontier station. lie has over since been a 
faithful luboui-er in the cause for which he sacrificed somuch. 



PREFACE. V 

Each day's exercises were commenced with a Praise and 
Prayer meeting, and the meetings throughout were cha- 
racterized by deep spirituality. The first paper read was 
a Historical Sketch of the Lodiana Mission, by Eev. J. 
Newton. It was very comprehensive, and will be an inva- 
luable record for future reference. The History of the 
Farrukhabad Mission up to 1870, by Mrs. J. F. Holcomb, 
was most interesting throughout. The Letters from re- 
tired missionaries manifested unabated love for missions 
and missionaries, and a longing to engage once more in the 
glorious work. The letter from the Rev. S. H. Kellogg 
proved so deeply interesting that by special request it was 
re-read. The dear departed were not forgotten, but their 
names and good deeds were tenderly recalled, and their 
virtues dwelt upon in a well arranged paper, prepared by 
the Eev. J. S Woodside. The paper on zenana work, and 
other evangelistic work among women, by Mrs. Chatterjee, 
was well received, and contained much valuable information. 

The fourth day, a Christian meld was held, with exer- 
cises in Hindustani. The Native Christians evidently 
realized the importance of the occasion, and entered hear- 
tily into all that was undertaken for their benefit. When 
addresses were called for, they required no urging to speak 
but spoke promptly and generally to the point. At 1 p.m. 
a repast was served, of which over three hundred partook. 
Here high and low, rich and poor, foreigner and native, 
met together on a social equality, and it must have seemed 
a most extraordinary proceeding in the eyes of the numer- 
ous Hindoos and Mahommedans present as spectators of 
the scene. 

When the Sabbath came and we saw the eager multitude 
thronging to the house of God, we could not help contrast- 
ing the present with the past, when one lone pioneer, the 
Eev. John C. Lowrie, came upon the field, then barren and 
desolate, " scarcely a blade of grass to be seen," to say 
nothing of a Native Christian. Now the Christians are 
counted by hundreds, and the whole face of nature changed 
into a " fruitful garden which the Lord hath blessed." 

Mr. Newton Sr. was abundant in labors during four days 
of the Jubilee Celebration. Certainly none of us shall ever 
forget the solemnity that fell upon our meetings as he led 
us to the Throne of Grace into the very presence of the 



VI PREFACE. 

Master, and talked with Ilim as it were face to face ; nor 
how our hearts liurued within us as he opened to us the 
Scriptures, old familiar texts coming to us with new mean- 
ing: and beauty as he made his simple comments upon them. 
Wo shall always have pleasing memories of these days, 
and of the people whom we have mot here. Fifty years 
hence, when the Centennial of this Mission is celebrated, 
those who participate in it will doubtless see much greater 
things tlian our eyes now behold. Then as now all the 
praise be unto llim who hath so marvellously wrought by 
the hands of His servants. Truly "the Lord hath mado 
known His salvation; llis righteousness hath He openly 
shown in the sight of the heathen." 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 

OF THE 

LODIANA MISSION, 

From its beginning, in 1834, 

to the time of its fiftieth anniversary, 

IN 1884 ; 

BY JOHN NEWTON. 



( ii ) 



NOTE. 

I feel bound to apologize to readers who know the true 
spelliiig ol* Indian proper names, for the form in whicli many 
of these names apj)ear in tlie following sketrh. I was 
persuaded to write them as thej' are written by Englishmen 
and Americans who have no knowledge of Indian literature, 
and who naturally attach the more common English sounds 
to the letters of the Koman Al))liabet, wherever they hap- 
pen to find them. 'J'he object of this mode of spelling was 
to help foreigners to a proper pronunciation of these Ori- 
ental names. Through the force of habit, liowever, I have 
thoughtlessly written some of the names correctlj' ; and I 
failed to notice the inconsistency till it was too late. I 
fear I shall hardly be forgiven by some of the persons refer- 
red to in the sketch, whose names have been so changed 
that there owners will scarcely recognize them ; for few 
peojile like to see their names mis-spelt. All I can do is 
to throw myself on their kindness, 'i'he perversions which 
trouble me most are those found in the names of some of 
my fellow-laborers : — such as 

Esa Ohurrun, properly written Tsa Tharan ; 

Esa Das, „ ,, Tsa Das ; 

Kallee Churrun, „ ,, Kali Charan ; 

Kowar Suin, ,, ,, Kunwar Sain ; 

Poorun Chund Ooppel, ,, ,, Piirau Chand Uppal; 

Ushruf Ullee, ,, ,, Ashraf Ali. 

The Roman Alphabet, with certain diacritical marks, 
is capable of indicating the exact ]>ronuneiation of every 
Indian word, save as to the syllable on which the accent 
should fall ; but few would trouble themselves to remember 
tlie explanation of such diacritical marks. J. N. 



( iii ) 



CONTEXTS. 



Former State of the Country, . . 

Missions in the North-west, Fifty years ago, 

The Fuuudiug of the Lodiana Mission, 

The Lodiana Mission Field, 

Our Mission. Stati(»ns, 

Sub-stations, 



Pajre 



The Work, the Outcome of it, the 

Evangelistic Preaching, . . 

Evangelistic Education, . . 

Orphanages, 

Medical Missionary Work, 

Poor Houses, Leper Asylums, etc., 

The Press, and Literature, 

Converts, . . 

Spiritual Labors of Native Christians, 

Organized Churches, and Pastoral Work 

Christian Villages, 

Various Occupations of Native Christian 

Sunday Schools, and Bible Classes. 

p)oarding Schools for Christian Children 

Theological Education. . . 

Presbyteries and Synod, . . 

"The" Mission." 

The Foreign Missionary Staff, 

Mission Sanitaria,. . 

Favour shown to the Mission, 

Eno-lish Preachiu"-. 

Mission Buildings, 

The Outlook, 

II. 



Sketch of Furrukhabad Mission, 

III. 
Sketch of Kolhapur Mission, 



1 

l^ 

4 

5 

7 

18 



Workers, etc. 



21 

27 

;u 

87 
42 
46 

55 
56 

57 
59 
60 
62 
66 
67 
70 
7a 
79 
80 
84 
87 
00 



loa 



.. 151 



( iv ) 

IV. 

Appendix A. Lodiana Mission in its early days, .. 101 

,, B. ^lissiuns'in North India,. . . . . . 1G8 

„ C. Number of Cuuverts in our India 

Churches, . . . . . . . . . . 172 

„ D. Talnilar view of Missionaries of 

Furrukhabad Mission, . . . . . . 174 

Li?t of Missionaries, . . . . . . . . . . 179 

Statistical table for 1885, 182 



THE LODIANA MISSION. 



Former State of the Country. 

The state o£ India fifty years ago was very different from 
what it is now. This is emphatically true of the north- 
west. 

1. Political State. Oude and Rohilcund were under 
independent native rule. The Mogul Emperor, though 
without power outside of his own palace at Delhi, was still 
treated with the deference due to a crowned head. The 
Punjab, north of the Sutlej was under the government of 
the famous Maharajah Runjeet Singh. Sindh was subject 
to Mahomedan chieftains, who bore the title of Nawab. 
The Sikh states south of the Sutlej some of the Hill 
states on the north-east, and the various principalities of 
Rajpootana and Central India, though enjoying British pro- 
tection, were in a large sense independent. Lodiaua, with 
its small territory, had just become a possession of the 
East India Company ; but it was surrounded by the terri- 
tory of native rulers. 

At the present time British supremacy is acknowledged 
over this entire region. Oude, Sindh, and almost the whole 
country known as the Punjab,* are under the immediate 
jurisdiction of the Empress-Queen : while, of the feudatory 
chieftains, to whom a partial independence is still conceded, 
not one would think of resisting the mildest mandate of the 
English Viceroy. 

2. Intercommunication. There were few facilities 
in those days for communication between one part of the 
country and another. The Grand Trunk Road, which 



* Formerly the word Punjab was used to denote particularly, if 
not exclusively, the country lying between the Sutlej and the In- 
dus ; but as the name of an English province, it has a much wider 
signification, — denoting all the country lying between the Jumna, 
on the east, and the border of Afghanistan, on the west. 



'Z FORMER STATE OF THE COT'NTKY. 

began at Calcutta, and in after j^ears extended all the way 
to rcsliawcr, reached, at the time now referred to, only as 
far as liarrackpore, a few miles from Calcutta. In the 
absence of regular roads, such as wheeled carriages require 
for easy locomotion, the first missionaries had to make their 
way up the country in palankeens, or by the more tedious 
process of sailing up the Granges in native boats; which, 
except when there was a favorable wind, had to be drawn 
by tow-ropes ; and woe to tlie vessel, when through tlie 
force of a strong current, the rope happened to break ! Tho 
time required for such voyages had sometimes to be counted 
by months. 

In the liainy Season the Ganges is navigable by native 
boats as far up as Garhmuktisar Ghat, some -JO miles from 
Meerut. But this is often accomplished with difficulty. As 
an illustration of this it may bo mentioned, thut the second 
party of our missionaries, having arrived in India in tho 
beginning of X835, sailed from Calcutta on the 23rd of 
June ; reached Cawnpore about three months later ; were 
obliged then, on account of the usual fall in the river at 
the end of the Kains, to change their boat for a smaller 
cue ; and finally to stop at Futtehgurh, From this place the 
journey was accomplished in a palankeen carriage drawn 
by oxen. In some places the road was fairly good ; but iu 
otliers, certainly, bad enough, and intersected every now 
and tlien by uubridged streams. Lodiana, the place of 
destination, was reached on the 8th of December ; so that 
the whole joiirney from Calcutta was accomplished in just 
five months and a half ! 

After the lapse of twenty years, another party, having 
tlie same journey to make, was able to travel by the Grand 
Trunk lioad as far as Umballa, — which is but 70 miles 
short of Lodiana, — the road having then been made up to 
that point. The mode of travel, this time, was in palankeen 
carriages, drawn and pushed by relays of coolies, and mov- 
ing forward by night as well as by day : so that the time 
required to reach Umballa, including Sabbath rests, was 
less than three weeks. 

Now, thirty yeai's later, the journey from Calcutta to 
Lodiana is made, by rail, iu 54 hours ; and it could be con- 
tinued to Rawul Piudee, our extreme station in the north- 
west, in about 18 hours more. 



MISSIONS IN THK NORTH-WEST, FIFTY YEARS AGO. 3 

Since the annexation of the Punjab to the British Empire, 
less than 40 years ago, 1.500 miles of metalled, and 23,000 
of unmetalled roads have been constructed, in this province 
alone; while 19,000,000 pounds sterling have been spent on 
railways. Such are some of the material improvements 
introduced by western civilization. 

3. Personal Security. In the early days of the 
Mission, such was the unsettled state of society, particu- 
larly in the provinces under native rule, that special pre- 
cautions had to be taken by travellers, to guard against 
attacks by robbers and brigands, — such as getting mounted 
policemen sent with them, from stage to stage, on their 
journey. 

Now, since Oude and the Punjab, and some other native 
states, have come under British jurisdiction, or British 
influence, danger from this source has so far diminished as 
to make all such precautions unnecessary. A Euroj)ean 
traveller in these days, no matter what out-of-the-way 
place he may be in, feels more secure than he would in 
many Christian countries, so called. 

Missions in the north-west, fifty years ago. 

The missionary work of our church, in India, began in 
1834.* At that time the only missionaries north and 
north-west of Benares, were the Rev. Mr. Bowley, of the 
Church Missionary Society, stationed at Chunar ; the Eev. 
Mr. Mcintosh, English Baptist, at Allahabad ; the Eev. 
Mr. Thompson, Baptist, at Delhi ; and the Rev. Mr. Ri- 
chards, C. M. S., at Meerut : though to these should be 
added, perhaps, a Mr. Grreenway, Baptist, at Agra, who 
combined some missionary work with his secular calling ; 
also a native catechist, named Anund Museeh, who labored 
under the supervision of the English chaplain at Kurnaul. 
This was a very small force for a population of about 
50,000,000. 

Of this approximate 50,000,000, as much as 22,700,000, 
according to the late census, belongs to the Punjab :f — and 



* It began under the auspices of the Western Foreign Missionary 
Society ; but after the lapse of a few years it was transferred to the 
General Assembly's Board of Forei^'n Missions. 

t This does not include the population of Kashmeer. 



4 THE FOUNDING OF THE LODIANA MISSION. 

if Delhi, which till after the mutiny of 1857 was included 
in the North-AVest Provinces, be left out of the account, 
there was not a single Missionary for this vast population, 
besides the catechist at Kurnaul, just referred to, and there 
was not more than about half a dozen Native Christians 
altogether. 

The Founding of the Lodiana Mission. 

The first missionaries of our church, in this country, 
the Rev. Messrs. John 0. Lowrie and William liced, were 
authorized to make their own selection of a field to work 
in. Those sections of the country which may be said to 
have had the strongest claims on them, were (1) Assam, (2) 
Oude and Rohilcund, (3) the country lying between the 
Jumna and the Ganges, commonly called the Dooab, (4) the 
Punjab, (5) Rajpootana, and (6) the Central Provinces. 

After much consideration they chose the Punjab. No 
other section of India is so full of historic interest as this. 
It was from here that Hindooism spread over the whole 
Peninsula. It was here that the great battle was fought 
which is described in the Mahabharat. It was through 
the Punjab that every successful invasion of India has 
ever taken place, except the British. It was here that the 
tide of Alexander's victories terminated. 

But such considerations probably had little influence on 
the first missionaries in the selection of their field of labor. 
This seems to have been due mainly to the fact that this 
was the land of the Sikhs, — a people of fine physique, and 
unusually independent cliaracter ; a people, moreover, who 
had already, in principle at least, discarded the old idolatry 
of Hindooism, and broken, in some measure, the bonds of 
caste ; and therefore might be considered to be in a favor- 
able state to be influenced by the preaching of Christian 
Missionaries. Besides tins, the Punjab lay in the way to 
Afghanistan ; and it was hoped that we might eventually 
penetrate into that country ; — a hope however which has 
never yet been realized.* 



* A step was indeed taken in that direction when Mr. Loewenthal 
wont to Peshawer, in the winter of 18r)6— '57, to learn the lanp;uage 
of the Afghans, and sicze the first opportunity that might present 
itself, of proceeding to Cahul : but his lifo came to an untimely 
end ; ua will bo noticed hereafter. 



THE LODIANA MISSION FIELB. 5 

In regard to the other great sections of the land just 
mentioned as presenting strong claims, one has since Ijeen 
occupied by Missionaries of our Board, while in others the 
work has been taken up by other churches, — such as the 
American Baptist, the American Methodist, the Church of 
England, the United Presbyterian of Scotland, and the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada ; also by certain English 
Ladies Societies, of an undenominational character. 

Into the Punjab also other churches and societies have 
now entered ; though the districts in which their mission- 
aries have established themselves are, for the most part, 
different from those in which ours are laboring. 

The Lodiana Mission Field. 

1. Area. The region lying within the limits of the 
Lodiana Mission is mainly a strip of country bordering on 
the Himalayan range of mountains,* and extending from 
the Ganges, on the south-east, to the Indus, on the north- 
west, — the distance between the extreme points being, in 
the ordinary way of travel, about 500 miles : while the 
average width is about 50 miles. Counting also our Hill 
stations and their surroundings, the entire area covered by 
our mission is probably not less than 30,000 square miles ; 
while the area of the whole Punjab, (in one part or other 
of which the several missions above mentioned are at work,) 
is 142,000 square miles. 

With the exception of the mountain range above-men- 
tioned, the country, for the most part, is a dead level. It is 
intersected by several large rivers — the Jumna, the Sut- 
lej, the Beeas, the Ravee, the Chenab, and the Jhelum, — 
the last five giving name to the major part of this mission 
field, viz. The Punjab ; that is, The Five "Waters ; or, The 
Land of the Five Rivers. 

Most of the country is susceptible of a high degree of 
cultivation ; especially since the construction, by the Eng- 
lish Government, of some large irrigation canals : and so 
much of it is actually under cultivation, that a large quan- 
tity of its agricultural produce is sent yearly to European 
markets. 



* The word Himalaya, or, more properly, Hinifflyn, means The 
Place, or Abode, of Snoiv, — from Him, snow, and dlyd, place. 



6 THK l.oniANA MISSION riKM). 

2. The People of the Punjab. The population of 
the whole I'uiijab, already ineutioned as 22,700,000, is 
divided, in respect to religion, almost equally between 
Mahomedans and the people commonly classed as Hin- 
doos ; (which however includes botli Sikhs and Outcasts;)* 
while, in addition, there are a few Buddhists, Jains, Zoro- 
ftstrians, &c. 

Almost all castes of Hindoos are found in this region. Of 
the Mahomedans, most are Soonnies; though there are also 
some S/ice\iii, and some Soofies. The iHndoos, on account per- 
haps of their long intercourse with Mahomedans, (most of 
wliose ancosters were themselves Hindoos,) and on account 
of their subjection, successively, for many centuries, to 
Llahomedan and Sikh rule, are less bigoted than their 
brethren in some other parts of India ; and they have not 
so strong a caste feeling. 

3. Vernacular Languages. The vernacular of the 
country, generally, whicli lies between the Jumna and the 
Indus, (north-west of Delhi,) is Punjabee ; though Oordoo 
is much spoken in the larger towns, and by the educated 
classes everywhere ; while Hiudee occupies miich the same 
place in the villages east of the Jumna, as Punjabee in 
the villages west of it. Oordoo is commonly written in 



* The word Hindoo never means a native of India, irrespective of 
religio!! or caste. As used by the people themselves, it denotes 
an adherent of the Bruhraanical religion, and one who is in good 
standing in his caste. Foreigners however use the word, somo- 
timea. in a loose way, so as to take in outcasts who live among Hin- 
doos. The Sikhs, though a few of them scorn to be called Hindoos, 
are in reality only Reformed Brahmanists ; for they are followers 
of the Ten Gooroos. all of whom, though they professed to worship 
only the Supreme God, revered the principal Hindoo gods, and che- 
rished Brahmanical rites The outcasts referred to have scarcely 
any religion, except a few who have boon admitted within the pale 
of Sikhism, and are called, some of them Ramdnssic.s, (followers of 
llainduss,) and some, Muzhtibies , (people having a religion,) accord- 
ing to the grade of outcasts to which they originally belonged : 
also a few who have become Mahomedans, and who consequently 
are called Moosullee, (righteous.) The word Hindoo is never com- 
prehensive enough to include Mahomedans and Christians It is 
therefore a solecism to speak of a Hindoo Christian, or a Hindoo 
MmiMter — meaning a native of India, or a convert from Uindooism, 
who has been ordained to the Gospel ministry, — a phrase we some- 
times BOO in American publicutious. 



MISSION STATIONS, 7 

the Persian character ; Hindee, in the Deva Nagree ; and 
runjabee, iu the Groormookhee. The corrupt Hindee of 
the mountains is sometimes written in a character called 
the Thakooree. 

Our Mission Stations. 

The Mission has now ten principal stations, twelve 
sub-stations, and two isolated Christian colonies, — making 
altogetlier twenty-four centres of missionary influence. 
The names of these, beginning in the north-west, are as 
follows : — 

1. Principal Stations : Rawul Pindee, Lahore, Feroze- 
pore, Jullunder, lloshyarpore, Lodiana, Subathoo,Umballa, 
Suharunpore and Deyrah. 

2. Sub- Stations : In the Rawul Pindee District, Murree ; 
in the Lahore District, Kussoor ; in the Hoshyarpore Dis- 
trict, Ghorawaha, and Grarhdiwala ; in the Lodiana District, 
Jugraon, Kooper, Morinda, and Khunnah ; in the Umballa 
District, the Umballa Cantonment, and Jugadhree ; to which 
Ladwa may perhaps be added ; in the Suharunpore District, 
Mozuiiernugger. [But for m.odifications and changes see 
under these several heads below.] 

3. Christian Colonies: Suntoke Majra, and Annee. 

Of these it will be proper now to speak somewhat in 
detail, — the principal stations being taken in the order of 
their occupation ; and the sub-stations, in the order of 
locality, beginning with the north-west, as before. The 
first to be mentioned therefore is 

Lodiana * While the pioneers of our Mission were 
still in Calcutta, arranging for their future work, Mrs. 
Lowrie fell a victim to consuonption ; and the same disease 



* By the Punjabees this word is spelt and pronounced Ludehctnd. 
By the old Mahomedan rulers it was written Liulhidna : and the 
English Post-Office authorities have lately taken to spelling it in 
the same way. Our way of spelling it grew out of an attempt 
made by some English. Civilians, about 50 year ago, to correct the 
spelling, by what they believed to be the origin of the name, as the 
abode of the Lodi. But this may be a mere fancy. It would be 
difficult now, however, to change the spelling of the name by which 
this station, (and from it the whole Mission,) has been known for 
fifty years. 



8 MISSION STATIONS. 

being developed in Mr. Reed, he was obliged, witli his 
wife, to re-onihark for America, — to be buried in the deep, 
however, before the ship had left the Bay of Bengal. 
Mr. Lowrie was left therefore to proceed to the work 
alone. 

The region selected, as already mentioned, was the one 
occupied by the tSikhs. It was then for the most part 
under the Grovernment of native chiefs ; but there were two 
places of importance which had already come under the 
jurisdiction of the East India Company. One of these 
was Umballa, and the other, Lodiana. Lodiana was not 
onlj' nearer the centre of the Sikh population than Umballa, 
but it was more populous ; and the chief political and civil 
officers there were more friendly, — so friendly indeed, that 
they olfered Mr. Lowrie every inducement to make that 
place the starting point for his missionary work. To this 
should be added the advice of Mr. Trevelyan, (afterwards 
Sir Charles Trevelyan,) who was then Private Secretary to 
the Grovernor Greneral, and who, on making Mr. Lowrie's 
acquaintance in Calcutta, showed a special interest in his 
work. He had himself held an official position in the 
north-west, and was therefore competent to give an opi- 
nion. 

Mr. Lowrie arrived at Lodiana, and began the work, in 
November, 18o-i ; and the first reinforcement, consisting of 
Rev. James AVilson and myself, with our wives, arrived in 
December, 1835. Only six - weeks after our arrival, Mr. 
Lowrie, whose health had been failing for some time, was 
obliged to leave — never to return : though, with health 
restored, he has been able, ever since, to serve the cause 
of Missions as one of the Secretaries of the Board. 

Lodiana is an unwalled town, 6 miles south of the Sut- 
lej, 116 miles south-east of Lahore, the capital of tho 
province, and 1,277 miles north-west of Calcutta. It stands 
on the Sindh, Punjab and Delhi Railway ; the construction 
of which began some 20 years ago. 

The population of Lodiana, at the present time, is 44,000, 
consisting both of Hindoos and Mahomedans, — many of 
the latter being Kashmories. 

Of the villages in the district, those which lie on tlie low 
ground, near the river, are inhabited almost entirely by 
Mahomedans ; those on the higli ground, more remote 



MISSION STATIONS. 9 

from the river, by Sikhs.* The population of the entire 
district is 618,000. 

When the ex-kings of Cahul, Shah Zuman (commonly 
known as the blind king — his eyes having been put out by a 
successful rival,) and Shah Shooja were expelled, succes- 
sively, from their own country, they took refuge in India, 
and became pensioners of the British Grovernment. Lodiana 
was thereupon appointed to be their place of residence. 
A considerable number of their descendants are living there 
still, being commonly spoken of as the Afghan or Cabul 
princes, or simply as Cabulies. In late years some of 
them have received Christian baptism. 

Lodiana, in the early days of our Mission, was a military 
as well as a civil station. At present the only Europeans 
living there, besides the missionaries, are such as hold civil 
offices under the Government, and employees of the Rail- 
way Company, together with their families. 

Among the industries for which Lodiana is noted, may be 
mentioned Kashmeer shawls, and cotton checks and ging- 
hams. Of the latter some of the best are made by native 
Christians. 

Suharunpore. The next station in the order of occupa- 
tion was Suharunpore. This, being in the North -West 
Provinces, is outside of the region chosen for our work by 
the founder of the Mission. What led to the taking up 
of that station was a letter received by the missionaries at 
Lodiana, in the summer of 1836. from Mr. ConoUy, the 
Collector and Magistrate of Suharunpore, in which he 
recommended that place as a station for some of the new 

* The Sikhs are divided into two classes, — the long-haired, 
(" Keswale,") and the cropped, (" Munne.") They are all disciples 
of Nanuk, the first of the Gooroos, who was a peaceable man ; but 
the long-haired Sikhs ai'e, in addition, special followers of Q-ovind 
Singh, the last of the Gooroos. Q-ovind Singh was distinguished as 
a military leader, — holding up the standard of Sikhism against the 
Mahomedan rulers of the Punjab. Sikhs become adherents of 
Q-ovind Singh by an initiatory rite called khand p'ihul, a kind of 
baptism ,(" the baptism of the S7t'o?-(^,") which entitles every one 
who has received it to be called Singh, (a lion. ) and binds him to 
maintain his religion, if necessary, by the sword ; and as a badge 
of this distinction, his hair is allowed to grow long, like the hair 
of a woman. Such at least was the spirit of the rite in the palmy 
days of Sikhism. Most Sikhs —especially those who are engaged 
in agriculture — belong to the Munne claea. 

2 



10 MISSION STATIONS. 

missionaries, who were expected, and who were then on 
their way up the Ganges. He stated at the same time, that 
a large h.ouse lately occu})ied by one of the civilians could 
be purchased by the Mission for the paltry sum of Ks. 400. 
All this looked like the leading of Providence ; especially 
as there were few places yet open in our proper field, — none 
indeed so inviting as 8uharunpore : and so the house was 
bought, and a welcome from the English residents awaited 
the new missionaries on their arrival. 

This station also is on the Siudh, Punjab, and Delhi Rail- 
way, a few miles west of the Jumna, It lies 111 miles south- 
east of Lodiana, has a population of 59,000, and is the 
chief city of a well watered and highly cultivated district — 
the population of the district being 979,000, — of whom 
one-third are Mahomedans, while two-thirds are classed 
as Hindoos. 

Suharunpore is the point of departure for the Hill stations 
of Mussoorie and Landour. It is somewhat noted for its 
manufactures in leather and wood carving. 

The missionary work was begun here in 1836, by the Rev. 
James R. Campbell and Jesse M. Jamieson, and their wives. 
Subathoo. The next station taken up was Subathoo. 
The work was commenced here by the Rev. James Wilson 
and William S. Rogers, and their wives, — Mr. Wilson 
having been transferred from Lodiana, and Mr. Rogers 
being of the party that had recently arrived from America. 
Subathoo is situated on the mountains, at an elevation of 
4,000 feet above the sea, where the temperature seldom 
rises so high as 90' Fah., and rarely falls low enough for 
snow. It is about 110 miles due east from Lodiana, and 
24 miles from Simla, the usual summer seat of the Indian 
Government. The native population is small — not more 
than about 2,000 ; and this consists largely of people who 
depend for their living on the wants of the European sol- 
diers quartered there. It is favorably situated, however, 
for missionary work among the Hill people, as the number 
of villages within a radius of 20 miles cannot be less 
than 100. These villages are indeed very small ; yet 
taken together they must contain a population of some 
thousands. 

What led particularly to the occupation of Subathoo 
was this : — Luriu"- the first summer after Mr. Lowrie's 



MISSION STATIONS. 11 

arrival at Lodiana, he was obliged, under medical advice, to 
be in the Hills. This gave him an opportunity of making 
the acquaintance of certain Christian jieople at Simla and 
Subathoo : and having gained from them a good deal of 
information about the Hill tribes, he was led to think that 
Subathoo would be a good centre for missionary work ; 
especially as the Hill-men were believed to be simple- 
minded and teachable. In view of this opinion, expressed 
by Mr. Lowrie, the missionaries at Lodiana thought they 
saw another Providential call, when, in the course of the 
summer of 1836, they received a letter from Dr. Laughton, 
Surgeon of theGroorkhallegiment then stationed at Subathoo, 
telling them that if a missionary could be sent to that 
station, a good dwelling house could be purchased for the 
small sum of E,s. 600. Thus they were led to make Subathoo 
their third station. 

It should be mentioned that the idea of the Hill people 
being more teachable than others, as was once believed, 
has proved to be a mistake. The success of evangelistic work 
among them has been less than on the plains. Nevertheless 
it is an advantage to the Mission to have a station where a 
missionary can live and labor, who might otherwise be 
compelled, on account of the imperfect health of either 
himself or his wife, to retire from the field altogether : and 
it is only such that have been stationed at Subathoo since 
the first year of its occupation. 

[In 1843 Mr. Caldwell, who had been stationed at Suha- 
runpore, was sent to begin work, on behalf of the Mission, 
at Meerut. This station had been occupied by the Church 
Missionary Society ; but it was now vacant, and that 
Society was understood to have abandoned the place. This 
afterwards proved to be a misapprehension ; and in 1846 
our missionary was instructed to withdraw.] 

Jullunder. In 1847 Jullucder was added to the 
number of our stations, and the missionary who commenced 
the work there was the Hev. Mr. Groloknath, with his wife : 
both of whom continue there to this day ; though on account 
of the infirmities of age it has been found necessary to 
have others associated with them. 

This is both a civil and a military station. It is situated 
in the midst of the Dooaba — the country lying bptween the 
Sutlej and the Beeas, on the railway already mentioned, 



l^ MISSION STATIONS. 

and 35 miles north-west of Lodiaua. Theoity is surrounded 
by a wall ; with, however, an addition, which includes seve- 
ral bazars, outside the wall, in the direction of the Mission 
premises. The population is 42,000 ; and the Military 
Cantonment, two or three miles distant, contains about 
8,000 more. 

There are also several large villages in the neighbourhood. 
Here, as elsewhere, Mahomedans abound, — being as numer- 
ous, perhaps, as Hindoos. The surrounding country is 
generally rich and well cultivated. The district has a 
popiilation 789,000. 

It had been the intention of the Mission, from the first, 
to cross the Sutlej, and carry the Gospel into the Punjab 
proper, as soon as possible. In those days no European 
was allowed to cross the river without special permission 
from the Lahore Durbar. An attempt was made, however, 
to do, by native agency, what foreign agency could not do. 
A native Christian was sent over with Scriptures and tracts 
for distribution, but he was seized, beaten, and imprisoned. 
This was at Philour. But in the spring of 1846, after 
the first Sikh war, the Jullunder Dooab was annexed to the 
British empire, and this gave the missionaries free scope in 
that part of the previously forbidden territory. Thereupon 
it was determined to take a step forward. Jullunder was 
the chief city of the Dooaba, and the new civil authorities 
there were friendly. The Mission therefore issued a circu- 
lar, setting forth its wish to occupy Jullunder, and asking 
the European community for contributions towards the 
building of a house for a native missionary, and a school 
house, or whp-tever might be needed. This call was res- 
ponded to, and about Rs. 3,000 were promptly contributed, 
A site was selected by Mr. Porter ; and, with the help of 
the civil officer in charge of the district, a large lot was 
secured on favorable terms, houses erected, and the work 
inaugurated, in 1847, 

Umball^. Umballa was occupied in 1849, by the Rev. 
J. M. Jamieson and his wife. It is situated on the railway, 
about 70 miles south-east of Lodiana ; and is the point of 
departure for Simla. Umballa is a walled city, with a 
population of 26,000 ; but in the cantonment, at a distance 
of three or four miles, there is said to be an additional 
population of 46,000, 



MISSION STATIONS. V6 

Umballa is the 'centre o£ a thickly populated district, — 
the number of inhabitants being more than a million ; of 
whom one-third are Mahomedans, and two-thirds, what, 
in a general sense, may be called Hindoos, The large city 
of Patiala, the capital of a native state, is only about twenty 
miles distant. 

The only noteworthy manufacture of Umballa is the coun- 
try carpet called durree. 

Lahore. Next to Umballa, in the order of occupation, is 
Lahore, the capital of the Punjab. It had become a British 
possession by the annexation which followed the second 
iSikh war. The Government of this new province was in the 
hands of a Board of Administration, of which the most 
prominent members were the two Lawrences who have 
figured so largely in Indian history — Sir Henry and his 
brother John ; the latter of whom was afterwards made 
Viceroy, and eventually obtained a peerage. 

These were both Christian men ; and so was Mr. Montgo- 
mery, the Commissioner of the Lahore Division ; who in 
due time was advanced to the Lieut. -Grovernorship, as Sir 
Bobert Montgomery ; and who, since his return to England 
has for many years been a member of the India Council. 

Before the end of the year in which the annexation took 
place, the missionaries at Lodiana received a letter from 
Dr. Baddely, a Christian Surgeon at Lahore, urging them 
to move on to the capital, without delay, — assuring them 
that every encouragement might be expected from the 
Lawrences, and Mr. Montgomery, and others. Accordingly 
the liev. C. W. Forman and myself were set apart by the 
Mission for this work ; and, accompanied by Mrs. Newton, 
we were at Lahore before the beginning of 1850. 

Lahore is one of the most ancient cities of India. It 
bears a name* which favors the belief that it was founded 
by a son of the famous Earn Chunder. Though once a city 
of wide extent, having a circumference, tradition says, of 
about 15 miles, the bulk of the present population, (which 
according to the last census is 1^8,000,) is shut in by a 
wall which in circuit is only about 5 miles. 

Having been the capital of the Punjab, under every 
successive Grovernment, for something like 3,000 years. 



* Written by the natives Lahaur — the city of Laha. 



14 MISSION STATIONS. 

and being on the highway for the numerous armies which 
during this period liave invaded India from the north-west, 
it hiis doubtless been destroyed and rebuilt many times. 
Scores of houses which have been built outside the city 
walls since the English took possession of it, in 1849, (and 
some, before that time,) have been built for the most part 
of bricks belonging to former generations, dug out of the 
ground. 

Not only is Lahore the seat of Government for the Punjab, 
but it is the point of junction for the railways running south- 
eastward, towards Delhi and Calcutta, south-westward, 
towards Kurachee, and north-westward, towards Peshawer. 
Here also the Siudh Punjab and Delhi Kail way Company 
have very extensive workshops, which give employment to 
some thousands of native workmen. 

Although it is but a few years since the power of the 
Sikh llulers was concentrated at this place, the number 
of Sikhs now resident at Lahore is small. The population 
in the main is divided almost equally between Mahome- 
dans and what are called orthodox Hindoos. 

Deyrah. Deyrah was occupied by the Mission in 1853, — 
the first missionary being the liev. J. S. Woodside ; who, 
with his wife, was transferred to that place from Suharunpore. 
Deyrah, like Suharunpore, is in the North-West Provinces. 
It is situated in a valley called Deyrah Doon, {dihi meaning 
a valley) between the Himalya mountains and a low outer 
range of hills called the Sewalick range. The population, 
chiefly Hindoo, is 19,000. 

The climate is comparatively cool ; on which account it 
has become a favorite residence for Europeans, who having 
retired from the service of the Grovernment, wish to spend 
the remainder of their days in India. 

One of the Sikh gnoroox has his Mausoleum at Deyrah ; 
and so it has become a place of pilgrimage for adherents of 
the Sikh religion. 

This valley has latterly become the seat of many Tea 
Factories, owned for the most part by Europeans. It 
extends from a point some distance west of the Jumna to 
the Ganges, and its jungles are favorite haunts of tigers 
and wild elephants. 

The Dejrah district contains a population of 144,000. 

\_Uoorki'e, 18 miles east by south from Suharunpore, and, 



MISSION STATIONS. 15 

like the latter, not within the limits of the Punjab, became 
one of the stations of this Mission in 185G, — the first mis- 
sionary being the Rev. Joseph Caldwell ; who with his wife 
was transferred from Suharunpore. 

Roorkee stands on the Grreat Granges Canal, and is the seat 
of an Engineering College ; founded and supported b}' the 
British Grovernmeut — mainly for the purpose of training 
native engineers. 

It has a comparatively small population, probably not 
more than 10,000; but being only a few miles from Hurdwar, 
one of the most famous places of Hindoo pilgrimage, it was 
supposed to be a good place for missionary work. Latterly, 
however, this station has been made over, by our Board, 
to the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
North America.] 

Rawul Pindee. Rawul Pindee was occupied in the same 
year, 1856, by the Rev. John H. Morrison and his wife, 
transferred from Lahore. Mr. Morrison and another of the 
Lahore missionaries having at different times extended their 
itinerations for preaching as far as Rawul Pindee, had disco- 
vered a community of Mehturs there, who seemed anxious to 
be instructed in the Gospel ; and so the Mission determined 
to make that one of its stations. The hopes raised by what 
seemed then to be a spirit of enquiry were not fully realized : 
yet a number of those Mehturs were eventually baptized, 
and at least one of them has greatly honored his Christian 
profession. 

Rawul Pindee is 170 miles north-west of Lahore, on the 
Lahore and Peshawer Railw^ay, and 60 miles east of the 
Indus. The population of the city is only 20,000, but there 
is a native population in the neighbouring cantonment of 
6,000. This is the point of departure for the Hill station 
of Murree, through which runs the best road to Kashmeer. 
The distance of Kashmeer from Rawul Pindee, is about 1 70 
miles. The country about Pindee, is in some places broken 
and very irregular ; and much of it is mountainous. Yet 
the population of the whole district is 820,000, — very 
largely Mahomedan. The cold weather is longer and 
more severe than in other parts of the Punjab, but the heat, 
during part of the summer, is very trying. 

[What was called our Mission to the Afghans must be 
noticed here. Major Conran, well known as an earnest 



Jf) MISSION STATIONS. 

Christian, feeling a deep interest in the spiritual welfare of 
the Afghans, (perhaps because they were thought by some 
to be descendants of the ten lost tribes of Israel,) made an 
olfer to the Mission, about the year 1855, of Es. 15,000, — 
on condition of our spending it on missionary work among 
that people. The Mission accepted the offer ; — the more 
readily, because it was part of our original plan to extend 
the work ultimately into Afglianistan ; and the Ivev. Isidor 
L/oewouthal, a converted Jew, who joined the Mission in 
the beginning of 1856, cheerfully consented to undertake 
the work for which the money had been given. 

The C. M. S. had already taken up Peshawer as one of 
its Stations, with special reference to the Afghans, many 
of whom live thereabouts : and as that was a favorable 
place for studying Pushto, the language commonly spoken 
by them, the missionaries there, in a very fraternal spirit, 
invited Mr. Loewenthal to come to Peshawer, and tarry 
with them till he had acquired the language, and felt able 
to proceed into the interior of the Afghan country. Thia 
invitation was accepted, and he remained at Peshawer till 
the spring of 1^=63, when his life was cut short by the hand 
of violence. He had learned the language so well as to 
be able to translate the New Testament into it. At one 
time he asked the Mission to sanction his going to Cabul, 
but, on account of the hostility of the Mussalmans in that 
country, the danger was thought to be too great, and so 
the sanction sought was refused. By the time when his 
death occurred the whole of the money given by Major 
Conran, for this object, had been expended : and as the 
Mission had no one to carry on the enterprise in Mr. 
Loewenthal's place, it was given up. This particular work 
is now altogether in the hands of the Church Missionary 
Society : but they have not yet been able to advance, in the 
direction of Cabul, beyond the Peshawer valley.] 

[Mention must be made of Kupoortliula also. In the 
year 1859 the President of the Mission received a letter 
from the Rajah of that state, asking that a missionary 
should be sent to his capital, — with a view especially to the 
education of his two young sons, — and promising to defray 
all expenses. This seemed to be a clear call of Providence, 
and so the Ivajah's request was promptly c(>mplied with. 
As ho had expressed a preference for Mr. Woodsido, the 



MISSION STATIONS. 17 

Mission transferred him from Deyrah, to begin the work 
at this new and promising station. In the course of a 
year or two he was joined by Dr. Newton, as a Medical 
Missionary. The Rajah afterwards assumed an unfriendly 
attitude towards Mr. Woodside, and so it was thought 
best to suspend the work for a time. Meanwhile however 
two dwelling houses and a church had been built, for the 
Mission, at the expense of the State. 

For this church Mr. Woodside still holds a document 
executed by the Rajah, by which it is made the property 
of the Mission. 

Though the work was suspended after the lapse of only 
a few years, it was not without fruit : for one of the young 
princes who were educated by Mr. Woodside, after reaching 
full age, was baptized, at Jullunder ; and is now a member 
of the church there. 

The Rajah died in 1871. His successor also, the elder 
of the two princes mentioned above, has been dead for some 
years. The present Rajah is a minor, and the government 
of the State is controlled by a British ofiEicer deputed for 
that purpose. The Mission has not receded from its 
purpose of resuming the work at Kupoorthula, but the 
favorable juncture looked for has not yet arrived.] 

Hoshyarpore. Hoshyarpore was occupied in 1867. 
It is the chief town, after Jullunder, in the country lying 
between the Sutlej and the Beeas ; having a population of 
20,000. It lies north of Lodiana, .at a distance of about 
40 miles, and distant from Jullunder, (the nearest point 
on the railway,) 24 miles. It is within half a dozen miles 
of the lower hills which flank the great Himalayan range 
of mountains, and much of the civil district of Hoshyarpore, 
with a population of 900,000, lies among the hills. Of the 
inhabitants of this district, 550,000, according to the late 
census, are Hindoos ; 290,000, Mahomedaus ; and 59,000, 
Sikhs. 

The station was occupied in the first instance by the Rev. 
Gooroo Dass Moitra. Very soon however he gave place to 
the Rev. Kallee Chui'run Chatterjee, who has been the sole 
missionary there ever since. 

Ferozepore. Ferozepore was taken np as a sub-station 
of Lahore, in 1870, and put in charge of the Rev. Esa 
Churruu ; who was succeeded in a short time by the Rev. 

a 



18 MISSION SUB-STATIONS. 

Jagendra Chundra Bose ; but in 1882 it was adopted "by 
the Buard as cue of its prinfii>al stations,— tlie wurk being 
then trausi'erred to the liev. Francis Janvier Newton. It ia 
a walled town of 20,000 inhabitants ; but eonntiug with it 
the military cantonment, two miles distant, and villages that 
lie very near, it may be said to have a population of 40,000. 

Ferozepore is on the southern side of the Sutlej, at a 
distance of about 6 miles, being at the same time 70 miles 
west from Lodiana, and 50 miles south from Lahore. 

The Hindoo element of the city population is believed 
to be greater than the Mahomedan. The population of the 
district is about 640,000 ; of whom about 810,000 are 
Mahomedan; 168,000, orthodox Hindoos, and 168,000, Sikhs. 

Ferozepore is soon to be connected with Delhi by a 
railway which passes through Ivohtuk ;* while another 
connection is contemplated through Lodiana ; and with 
the exception of 6 miles, and the unbridged Sutlej, it has 
already a railway connection with Lahore. 

SUB-STATIONS. 

Of the sub-stations a very brief account must suffice. 

Miirree. Beginning with the north-west, the first is 
Murree. This is a mountain sanitarium, 38 miles from Rawul 
Findee. It is occupied by a native catechist, who usually 
goes up from Pindee in the summer season, when the bazar 
is full of natives. Part of the work, some years ago, was the 
teaching of a primary school; but latterly the work has been 
confined to preaching and the circulation of Christian books 
and tracts, 

[7^/^ssoor, a sub-station of Lahore, is a walled town of 
17,000 inhabitants — largely Mahomedan — about 35 miles 
distant, in the direction of Ferozepore. It is a joint station 
of the Lodiana Mission and the Lahore Presbytery, — Dr. 
Forman, a Medical Missionary, representing the former, 
and the Ilev. Poorun Chuud Ooppel representing the latter. 
It was occupied in the end of 1883. Jf 

Ghoraicaha. Ghorawaha is a large village 15 miles 
north-west of Hoshyarpore, of which it is a sub-station. 



* This has since been accompliehed. 

f This stutiou has since been relinquished. 



MISSION SUB-STATIONS. 19 

It has a small Christian community, with a neat chapel, 
and a dwelling house occupied by the Rev. Abdool- 
lah, who is acting as pastor to the little flock, while also 
he preaches as an evangelist. The Grhorawaha Chi'istians 
are formally connected, however, with the Hoshyarpore 
church. 

Gurhdiwala. Mr. Chatterjee has selected Gurhdiwala 
also as a sub-station. It is a village of 3,400 inhabitants, 
18 miles north of Hoshyarpore, and has a catechist. This 
measure will no doubt be formally sanctioned by the 
Mission. 

Jugraon. The first sub-station connected with Lodiana 
is Jugraon, a walled town of 16,000 inhabitants, 24 miles 
distant, on the road to Ferozepore. It is occupied at pre- 
sent by the Rev. Ahmed Shah. 

Rooper. The second is Rooper, an unwalled town of 
10,000 inhabitants, at the foot of the Hills, and at the 
head of the Sirhind Canal. It is about 40 miles east of 
Lodiana. The Mission has been represented there, till 
lately, by the Rev. Matthias. 

Morinda. The third is Morinda, a small town 40 miles 
east by south from Lodiana, where the Rev. Ushruf UUee 
was the missionary agent, till near the time of his death, 
in 1862. There is an organized church there, composed of 
converts living in the neighboring villages. 

Khunnah. A fourth sub-station, which however has not 
yet been formally sanctioned by the Mission, is Khunnah, 
on the railway, 27 miles south-east of Lodiana. It has a 
population of about 4,000. 

Umhalhi Cantonment. The first and most important of 
the sub-stations connected with Umballa is the Umballa 
Cantonment, which is said to have a population of 46,000. 
It is only 3 or 4 miles from the city. Besides a foreign 
missionary, the Rev. W. J. P. Morrison, there is a Native 
Pastor there, — the Rev. Wm. Basten : who, according to 
his strength, preaches to the heathen, as well as to the 
native Christians. 

Jugadhree. The second is Jugadhree with 12,000 in- 
habitants at a distance of 31 miles from Umballa, and 
within a mile and a half of the railway. The chief mis- 
sionary agent here is a native Licentiate, Mr. George H. 
Stuart. 



20 MISSION sri)-STAT10N8. 

[At one time Shahabad also was counted among the sub- 
f-tatioDs of Umballa. It stands on the Trunk lioad, towards 
])plhi, at a distance from Umballa of about 16 miles. The 
principal Mission agent there was a native apothecary, 
named Sterling. Besides treating patients at a Dispensary 
lie superintended a School. But this station was given 
up several years ago.] 

Mozujfermigger. MozufTernugger is a sub-station of 
Suharuupore. It is a town of lo,000 inhabitants, on the 
Delhi Railway, 36 miles from Suharuupore. It has been 
occupied successively by native brethren — the Ilev. Kower 
Sain, and the Rev. Mr. Wylie : but on the transfer of 
the Roorkee Mission Station to the Reformed Presbyterian 
Synod, the Rev. W. Calderwood was appointed to take up 
the work there, and it is likely now to be made a principal 
station of the Board.* The district of which it is the 
capital contains a population of 758,000. 

[_Rnjpore, at the foot of the Mussoorie hills, was at one 
time a sub-station of Deyrah, but for some years past there 
has been no Mission agent there.] 

T/ie Ch'ifitian Settlements of Suntoke Majra and Annee. 
These two Christian settlements were founded by the Rev. 
M. M. Carleton, who is recognized as a pm-ely Itinerant 
Missionary ; though most of his time is now spent at one 
or other of these villages. 

The first of them, Suntoke Majm, is in the Kurnaul dis- 
trict ; the other, Annee, is in the Kooloo district, far up in 
the mountains. 

Ladwa. It should be further mentioned, that Dr. 
Carleton has been authorized to establish a Dispensary at 
the town of Ladwa, in the Umballa district, — a town of 
4,000 inhabitants, near the Trunk Road, and about 30 miles 
from Umballa. This is not regarded, however, as a proper 
sub-station ; nor yet a principal station of the Board : 
but, being in the Umballa district, it is spoken of as a sort 
of sub-station of Umballa. 



* This has since been done. 



21 



THE WORK, THE OUTCOME OE IT, 
THE WORKEES, etc. 

I. — Evangelistic Preaching. 

From the beginning of our missionary career, the public 
proclamation of the Gospel, or preaching in the technical 
sense of the word, has ever been regarded as of prime 
importance — as being emphatically what was contemplated 
by the commission to "go into all the world, and preach 
the Gospel to every creature." 

Accordingly it has been made the duty of every mission- 
ary to give his chief attention at j&rst to the study of the 
vernacular, so as to be able to declare to the people, in their 
own tongue, the wonderful works of God, and his wonderful 
purposes of grace. 

It is true that this paramount duty has now and then 
been neglected : — sometimes through the eagerness of new 
missionaries to embark at once in some direct missionary 
work, — an opportunity for which is found at almost every 
station in an anglo-vernacular school ; and sometimes by 
medical practice. Others have been necessarily hindred by 
secular work connected with the erection of Mission build- 
ings ; while a few have failed through a lack of power to 
master a foreign language. 

The same evil has been encountered in other Missions, 
and various remedies have been resorted to. Some Societies 
forbid their missionaries to take up any work the first 
year, in order their whole time may be given to the study 
of the language. Some merely require the young mission- 
aries to undergo examinations in the language ; with the 
understanding, that, if they fail by the end of the second 
year, they are to give up the enterprise, and go home. 
Latterly the rale in the Lodiana Mission has been to 
examine every new missionary at the end of the first year, 



22 PREACHING. 

and again at the end of the second year ; and allow him no 
vote on questions relating- to Mission business, till ho has 
passed one examination with success. 

The language which is considered most suitable for 
preaching in, to mixed assemblies, in all the cities of the 
Punjab, and the North AVest Provinces, is Oordoo ; while in 
the vilhiges it is far better, (though not always essential,) 
in the Punjab, to preach in Punjabeo, and in the N. W. P., 
in liindee. 

1. Bazar Preach ing. In the early days of the mission- 
ary work it was the custom, at all our stations, to preach 
in the open bazar, or wherever an assembly of listeners 
could be found ; provided of course that no obstacle was 
offered thereby to the traffic of the place ; and in most 
places this is the custom still. 

'Z. Chapel Preaching. Of late, however, in order to 
avoid the confusion which often arises from the continued 
interruptions caused by bitter opponents, who feel at liber- 
ty in the streets to say what they please, the missionaries 
at many of our stations aim at having chapels, larger or 
smaller, situated on thoroughfares, where, if interrupted by 
gaiui^ayers, they can insist on silence. At Lodiana there 
arc two such preaching ]tlaces ; at llawtil Pindee, one ; at 
Lahore, five ; at lloshyarpore, one ; at Ghorawaha, one ; at 
Jullunder, one ; and at Lodiana, two. 

Some of these are used for preaching only, some for 
schools and other purposes, as well. 

At Lahore, for example, one is a chapel built expressly as 
a place of worship, by the Native Christian community, — 
aided largely, indeed, by our Mission, and somewhat also 
by the English Church Mission ; and it is used in common by 
both these Missions. One is a large room, in our Mission 
Dispensary. Here also the Church of England Missionaries 
take their turn in preaching, assisted by the students under 
training in their Divinity College. The other three are 
school houses. The two chapels at Lodiana were built, and 
are used, for preaciiing and worship only. The same is 
true of the chapels in Jullunder and in Ghorawaha. 

The chapel [ireaching is at stated times, and is usually 
accompanied by the singing of hymns and sometimes by 
prayer. The use of some musical instrument greatly aids 
the singing, whero there are necessarily but few voices ; 



PBEACHINO. 23 

and it serves at the same time, to attract people passing 
by, and thus to enlarg-e the audience. The iiistruiueuts 
which seem best adai)tcd to this piu'pose are the Harmo- 
nium and the Violiu. 

The first of our Mission Chapels was built at Lodiana in 
the year 1839, and opened for worship in January 1840. It 
is usually knowu as the " City Church," because it waa 
originally intended, aud for some years used, as a place of 
worship for the Native Christian congregation. — It is per- 
haps the only chapel in the Mission, used for preaching to 
the heathen, which is furnished with a bell. This bell was 
a gift of the Hev. Dr. Beatty, of Steubenville, Ohio, recent- 
ly deceased. This event owes its origin to a suggestion 
made by a Hindoo apothecary, living in a distant part of 
the city. He was in the habit of coming to my house to 
talk about our religion as a subject he was deeply interest- 
ed in, — often bringiug a number of his friends with him. 
In those days the Sunday services were held in my house ; 
and both the apothecary and his friends attended the ser- 
vices with a good deal of regularity. After the church 
was open in the city they were still more regular. One 
Sunday lie and his friends met us on our way to the church, 
aud after saying they had been waiting a long time, not 
being aware of the hour, he suggested that it would be a 
good thing to have a bell, that might be heard all over the 
city; " for then," he said, " we should know when to come." 
When this was mentioned in a letter to Dr. Beatty, he 
immediately procured a bell, and sent it ; and almost ever 
since, except in the time of the Mutiny, when the church 
was in ashes, that bell, Sunday after Sunday, has called 
Christians, Hindoos, and Mahomedans, alike, to hear the 
Gospel's joyful sound. 

The idea was a good one. Every Mission chapel, as well 
as every church, should, if possible, have a bell. 

3. English Lectures to Educated Natives. Closely con- 
nected with the subject of chapel preaching is an arrange- 
ment made by Mr. Forman, at Lahore, for the delivery of 
English lectures to the English speaking natives of the 
city, in the cold season of every year. The lecturers 
represent different denominations : some of them are resi- 
dents of Lahore, and some come on invitation from other 
parts of the Punjab ; while now aud then a lecture is secured 



24 PREACHING. 

from a passing stranger. Europeans and Americans and 
Clu'istiau natives of India have alike been enlisted in this 
service. Among the lecturers outside ot" our own Mission, 
we may mention the Professors of the C. M. S. Divinity 
College, Lahore ; Bishop French of the Lahore Diocese ; 
Bishop Johnson of Calcutta ; Mr. Maclay, American Mission- 
ary to China; Mr. Ram Chunder Bose, of the Methodist 
Mission in Oude ; Mr. Perkins of the Punjab Civil Service, 
&c. The subjects of these lectures are more or less evan- 
gelistic, according to the taste and judgment of the lecturers. 
The number of hearers generally varies from one to two 
hundred ; and the address is always preceded and followed 
by the singing of hymns. 

4. VtlliKje Freacmny. It is made incumbent on every 
missionary, when ill-health or station duties do not pre- 
vent, to spend a part of every cold season in itinerant preach- 
ing. We aim thus at reaching the whole population : yet 
the number of villages and towns is so great, that even 
though the time given to each were but a day or two, many 
years must elapse before the present force of missionaries 
could reach them all ; and as a matter of fact there are 
hundreds of villages within the limits of oiu' Mission, that 
have never yet seen the face of a missionary. Once, at a 
meeting of the Mission, a special ett'ort was made to carry 
the Gospel to all within our limits, by assigning to each 
station all the territory within certain geographical lines, 
and requiring all the towns and villages, within those lines, 
to be visited and preached in by the missionaries of that 
station, during the next five years. But it was a vaiu 
effort : the thing could not be done. 

And yet village preaching is believed to be specially 
encouraging. This has been the experience of missionaries 
in South India, and also in Bengal. It is in this also that 
Mr. Chatterjee's work in the Hoshyarpore district of this 
Mission has been particularly blessed : and the same is true 
of the American U. P. Mission. It has therefore become a 
serious question whether Rural Missions ought not to have 
a much larger place in our plans than they have ever yet had. 

This is a kind of work which has been found practicable 
even for lady missionaries. Miss Greenfield and her asso- 
ciates, of the Society for Promoting Female Education in 
the East, stationed at Lodiana, have carried their work into 



PRKACinNG. 25 

the villages, to a distance of many miles from their centre ; 
and have met with every encouragement. Miss Clay, of 
the Church of England Zenana Mission, went so far as to 
reside in a village of the Umritsur district, with no Euro- 
peans within ten miles, except the ladies who were associated 
with her in the work ; and now they have begun to occupy 
other villages in the same way. 

5. Preaching at Fairs. In every part of India large 
numbers of people are often found at Religious Fairs, which 
continue, variously, from a single day to a whole* month. 
To the more protracted of these fairs, the pilgrims often 
come from a great distance. This affords an admirable 
opportunity of preaching to both men and women who 
could not be reached in any other way. One special advan- 
tage to the missionary is, that the pilgrims generally have 
a religious object in view, — such as the washing away of 
their sins by bathing in the Granges ; — so that they are in 
a favorable state of mind for hearing the Gospel. Besides 
this, as they are often kept waiting many days for the 
most favorable juncture to secure the blessing they are 
in search of, it is a period of leisure, and so there is nothing 
to hinder them from hearing what the missionary has to 
say, for hours at a time, day after day. 

Some of the most important of these fairs, within the 
limits of the Lodiana Mission, are those held at Hurdwar, 
where the " holy" Granges issues from the mountains ; 
at Jwala-mookhee, where perpetual flames, issuing from 
the earth, are believed to represent the great Indian god- 
dess ; at Thanesur, between Umballa and Delhi ; and at 
Pehoa, a place accounted sacred because it was the great 
battle-field in which the gods gained a victory over the 
Pandas ; at Manimajra, Umritsur, &c. ; besides local fairs 
of short continuance in many places. 

From the beginning our missioneries made it a point 
to attend these fairs, accompanied by Native preachers 
and colporteurs : yet for some reason or reasons unknown 
to the writer, they are less frequented by missionaries 
now than they were formerly. 

An Open Dooe. 

In the olden time it was the opinion of the English 
Rulers of India that the preaching of missionaries would 

4 



26 PRRAOHING. 

60 arouse the antipatliy of the natives as to endanger the 
Btability oi' the empire ; and tlie early missionaries, in con- 
sequence, found it difficult to maintain their position in 
the country. This fear however lias long since ceased to 
be operative, or even to exist, except in very rare cases, — 
in cases too where there is reason to believe there is an 
utter want of sympathy with missionaries, if not an entire 
misapprehension of the nature of their work. It is true 
that, so lately as 1849-'50, shortly after the annexation of 
the Punjab, when our missionaries first went to Lahore, 
the advice they received from the I^awrences, then the 
highest in authority in the new province — themselves 
Christians, and ver}- friendly — was that they should abstain 
for awhile from public preaching, least disturbances should 
arise. The missionaries themselves had no fear, for all 
their former experience was against it ; yet they deemed 
it proper not to disregard the advice given, considering 
the source from which it had come ; and so they desisted 
for a few months, and then went into the bazars, and lift- 
ed up their voices as in other places, finding the people of 
the old Sikh capital just as ready to listen, calmly, as the 
inhabitants of the older British Provinces. 

All experince shows that so long as missionaries are left 
free to preach the simple Grospel of Christ, they can do so 
without creating any breach of the peace. Even in the 
time of the mutiny, when the whole country was in a state 
of intense excitement, and foreigners were really in great 
danger, and many Christians were killed merely because 
they were Christians, the public preaching of the Gospel 
•was discontinued by members of the Lodiana Mission only 
for a very short time ; and it is well remembered that be- 
fore the mutiny was entirely quelled during a preaching 
tour made in the Umballa district, the treatment received 
by the missionaries was every thing they could wish. 

No doubt there are men to be found, always, and in 
every land, so much under the influence of the prince of 
devils, as to be ready to do his work in crushing the Minis- 
ters of Christ by main force ; that is, where there are no 
restraints put upon them by the civil power. But happily 
this power, in India, and now in many other heathen coun- 
tries, exerts a wholesome influence over the few miscreants 
who would be glad to imbrue their hands in the blood of 



EDUCATION. 27 

Christ's witnesses. It will not be so always. "We should 
therefore make the most of our present opportunities, 
thanking Grod for having opened to us so wide a door. 

II. — Evangelistic Education. 

I. Young men and Boy a. In a country where English 
education is in great demand, a missionary finds a door 
open for usefulness even before he has a knowledge of the 
native languages. Accordingly, there are few, if any, of our 
stations, where the missionaries, have not plunged at once 
into the work of education. 

When Mr. Lowrie arrived at Lodiana, he found an 
Anglo-vernacular School already in existence, established 
and supported by the Political Agent, Captain C. M. 
Wade ; and superintended by Mr. R. Hodges, a clerk in 
Captain Wade's office. This school was at once transferred 
to the superintendence of Mr. Lowrie, while Mr. Hodges 
held the place of Head Master. 

An interesting feature of this school was, that a number 
of the pupils belonged to distinguished families — Afghans 
and Sikhs ; some of the latter having been sent by tho 
Kuling class on the other side of the Sutlej. 

Mr. Lowrie had not been long at Lodiana, when he 
received an invitation from the Maharajah Runjeet Singh 
to visit Lahore. This invitation was accepted : and the 
visit extended through several weeks. — During the whole 
time he was treated as the Maharajah's guest, and every 
attention was shown him. The object of His Highness in 
this invitation was to negociate with the missionary for the 
establishment of a school at Lahore, for the education, iu 
English, of the sons of the nobility, and other promising 
young men at the capital. And such might have been the 
result of the visit, but that the missionary principle of 
teaching the Grospel iu connection with literature and 
science, was unacceptable to the Maharajah ; and so of 
course the negociation failed. Nevertheless Mr. Lowrie 
was dismissed with some valuable presents — to the benefit 
of the Mission treasury. 

The school at Lodiana has been known as the Lodiana 
Mission High School. Though the founder of the school 
continued to be a most liberal patron, the Mission had the 



28 EDUCATION. 

entire control of it ; so that almost from tlic beginning it 
was a Christian institution ; and it has been carried on suc- 
cessfully, under the principalship of nearly a dozen mis- 
sionaries, down to the present time. It was supplied at an 
early date with a fair stock of philosophical apparatus. It 
is doubtful however whether as much use has been made 
of this, as might have been made with advantage. 

As early as 1837 the experiments made with it attracted 
the attention of one of the Afghan kings. Shah Shooja, — 
then a pensioner at Lodiana, and at one time the possessor 
of the famous Kohinoor ; and lie invited the missionaries to 
come to his house and show him some of the marvellous 
things which these philosophical instruments could do. 
This, too, brought a tribute to the Mission treasury. 

The average number of pupils in this school, for many 
years past, has been little short of 300, and the whole 
number of persons educated there, from the beginning, 
must have been as much as two or three thousand, at the 
very least. AVe can hardly count any of them as converts 
to Christ ; though very many have seemed to be alnioH 
Christians ; and no doubt the Christian influence of the 
school, through its pupils, has been felt far and wide 
tliroughout the Punjab. Of some, ver}- high hopes have at 
times been entertained ; but instead of taking the final step 
into the kingdom, they have gone back ; or, as is the case 
with some, they have continued to linger at the door — 
almost saved, yet almost certain to be lost. 

An account not very unlike this might be given of the 
Anglo-vernacular schools at other stations.* 

We have had such schools at Suharunpore, Deyrah, 
IJmballa, Jullunder, Lahore, and Eawul Pindee ; and for a 
while at Subathoo and Roorkee also.f The missionaries at 
Suharunpore were at first silent, in their school, on the 



* While these echoola are called Anglo-vemnadar, instruction is 
not confined to English, on the one hand, and to Oordoo and Hin- 
dee. (the common languages of the cities.) on the other ; for in all 
of them Piirsiiin also is taught, as one of the classical languages of 
India; and in some, Arabic and Sanscrit, in addition. 

f The same is true of Goojranwala, Shahabad, and Rajpore, when, 
years ago, these were sub-stations of the Mission, but the schools 
at these places were neither large nor very important. Ooojranwala 
is now a station of the American U. P. Mission, which is doing a 
good educational work there. 



EDUCATION. 29 

subject of Christianity. When the school seemed to be 
fairly established, they began to open the school with the 
reading of the Scriptures and prayer; and their school was 
virtually broken up by it. Afterwards indeed it recovered 
all that had been lost, and more ; but no doubt a Christian 
stand should always be taken from the first. 

This was done at JuUunder, and there was never any 
trouble on account of the religious instruction given in the 
school there. The popularity of the school, almost, if not 
quite, from the first, will be seen from a passage in a 
Gazetteer of the JuUunder District, which reads thus : 
** Simultaneously with the foundation of the Mission an 
Anglo-vernacular school was opened, supported entirely 
by the American Board ; and its success was so marked, 
that a Grovernment School, which was then already in 
existence, had to be given up for want of scholars," (which 
means, of course, that the scholars, or their parents, pre- 
ferred the Mission School.) *' In those days there was no 
grant-in-aid system ; but when the Educational Department 
was organized, the Authorities, after due consideration 
and inquiry, decided that there should be no Zilla School 
at JuUunder, as the Mission School was quite competent 
to meet the local demands." And such is the state of 
things still. 

At Lahore also, where the school began with three boys, 
the desire of the missionaries to see their pupils converted 
to Christ as the only Saviour of sinners, was avowed from 
the first, and never concealed for a moment. The custom 
for many years, in this school, has been to have all the 
classes brought together, not at the opening, but after 
some of the lessons have been given. When about 15 or 20 
minutes are spent in reading and expounding the Scrip- 
tures, and in prayer, the whole school standing during 
the time of prayer. 

So deeply has the propriety of this religious exercise 
impressed itself on the minds of the pupils, and perhaps 
of the parents, as contributing to the prosperity of the 
school, that when a rival institution was organized, 18 
years ago, by a combination of Hindoos and Mahomedans, 
the classes at first being made up of pupils withdrawn 
from the Mission school, and having for its Head-master a 
young man who had been educated by us, it was said to 



30 EDUCATION. 

have been made a part of the daily routine, for the secular 
studies to be suspended tor a short time ; wheu tlie Hindoo 
and the Mahomedan schohirs were removed into two separate 
apartments, to get religious instruction, the former from a 
Ftiiidit^ and the latter from a Ifou/avie. 

These Mission schools have .-ill received grants-in-aid 
from the Government ; and some of them have been specially 
commended, from time to time, by the Directors of Public 
Instruction, for their efficiency as educational institutions, — 
notably those of Lodiana, JuUunder, and Lahore, 

At one time there was a collegiate department in the 
Lahore School, affiliated to the Calcutta University, but 
on account of a reduction in the Missionary staff this depart- 
ment was suspended, and ultimately abolished altogether. 
Whether this was wise or not may be doubted ; for it left 
all the higher education in the hands of the Government 
College; where religious instruction is absolutely forbidden, 
and wiiere the influence of the professors is said sometimes 
to be inimical — not only to Christianity, but to all religion. 
This evil is now remedied, in part, by the establishment 
of a Mission College at Delhi, under the auspices of the 
Cambridge Mission, connected with the S. P. G., but this 
is too far from the centre of the Punjab to answer well. 

Most of the Anglo- vernacular schools educate up to the 
University entrance standard, and it is only a few pupils 
that wish to go beyond this. Of these few, however, some 
are Christians. 

At most of our stations there are schools of an inferior 
grade, commonly called Branch Schools, because they are 
feeders of the High Schools. The largest number of these 
is at Lahore; as also the largest of our High Schools. There 
are now at this place about 20 branches, with more than 
1000 pupils, while the Main School has about 600 students : 
the whole, united, being 1070. The number at liawul 
Pindee is little short of 900 ; at JuUunder, about 700. 
Much of the success of the educational work at Lahore is 
due to the energy and constant supervision of Mr. Forman; 
who has acquired such eminence as an educator as to have 
been appointed by the Government a member of the Senate 
of the Punjab University. 

After all that has been said about the success of these 
Mission Schools, it must be acknowledged that they have 



EOrCATIAN. 31 

shown very small results in the way of direct conversions. 
Their main justification, as a missionary ag-eiicy, is to be found 
in the fact that they raise up thousands of influential men who 
entertain a life-long- respect, and even friendship, for the 
missionaries ; and most of them look favorably on Christia- 
nity, as a religion which, if not exclusively a religion from 
Grod, is at least better than the other religions of the country. 

2. Women and Girls. Thus far M'e have spoken only of 
the education of boys and young men : but there is some- 
thing to be said of the education of girls and women also. 

This is an enterprise of more recent date. The wives of 
missionaries, in some parts of the country, had indeed done 
something in this way before the history of our Mission 
began ; but (except perhaps in the presidency towns) it was 
only girls of the lowest classes that could be induced to 
attend school at all ; and these had to be bribed by the 
payment of pice, or by presents of clothes — sometimes 
both. Female education, except in rare instances, found 
no favor with either Hindoos or Mahomedans. Our Com- 
mittee at home d;d indeed send out a young lady, with the 
second party of missionaries, as early as 1834. This was 
with the hope that a door might be opened for this kind of 
work ; but such were the discouragements which stared 
this lady in the face, when she reached Calcutta, that she 
ventured to proceed no further. 

It is only about 20 years since the education of Hindoo 
and Mahomedan females took a fair start in the Puniab. 
The first impulse may be said to have been given to it by 
the example of a pundit at Agra. He began to advocate 
the education of girls ; and, to make the matter practical 
he established several schools, and maintained them 
(so it was understood) at his own expense. This awakened 
attention, and respectable natives in the Punjab — men of 
influence took up the subject, and showed so much interest 
in it, that the Lient. -Governor, Sir Eobert Montgomery- 
felt encouraged to hold an educational durbar, to which 
natives and Europeans were alike invited. A prominent 
object of this durbar was to give an impulse to female 
education. Addresses were made and resolutions adopted 
which were destined soon to bear fruit. Mahomedans 
Hindoos, and Sikhs — all fell in with the measure • and it 
was not long before a large number of Girls Schools came 



32 EDIICAIION. 

into existence, especially in Lahore, and in Umritsur, — all 
supported, in the main, by municipal funds. — True indeed, 
these schools were ill-managed, and many of them proved 
to be an utter failure. This was owing partly to the fact 
that suitable teachers were wanting ; and some years must 
yet elapse before a sufficient number of duly qualified 
female teachers can be raised up. 

It is not said that previous to this time missionaries 
ladies in the Punjab had organized and taught no schools. 
Among the lower classes they had done something in this 
way ; but it was an up-hill work ; and the old system of 
bribery in the form of stipends, or some equivalent, had 
to be resorted to ; and to some extent this is true still. 
Yet from the time of the educational durbar, a desire began 
to be manifested by many gentlemen of liberal education, 
especially those who had been educated in English, to 
have some instruction given to their wives and daughters 
also ; and the women themselves soon caught the inspira- 
tion. But it was not book-learning only that they wanted. 
Such needle and fancy work as distinguishes cultured 
English ladies began to be attractive to them. 

Now was the time, of course, for missionary ladies, not 
only to establish schools for the lower classes of girls, but 
to enter the zenanas, and teach women and girls who would 
never venture to appear in public. Zenana Schools had 
already proved somewhat successful in Calcutta, and perhaps 
in the other presidency town ; but they were a new thing 
in the Norh-West Provinces and the Punjab. Now they 
are to be met with at all our Mission stations. 

So popular has this branch of education become, that 
missionary ladies now find as much work as they can do, 
and more, by teaching in zenanas to which they have been 
specially invited. In some places the work is more among 
Mahomedans ; in others, more among Hindoos. Since 
many Bengalee gentlemen are employed in Government 
offices, all over North India, and many of these have fa- 
milies, a Bengalee community is found in almost every 
large town ; and as Calcutta has led the van in Female 
Education, it is not surprising that missionary ladies are 
invited to teach in the families of many of these Bengalee 
gentlemen. Especially is this true of Brahmo families ; 
for Brahraos, being reformers, are more enlightened than 



EDUCATION. 33 

Hindoos g-enerally; besides this, they regard their religion 
as more nearly related to Christianity than to anything 
else ; and so they favor the reading of the New Testament, — 
which is an essential part of the instruction given by mis- 
sionaries, whether in zenanas or elsewhere. 

Those stations at which our missionaries have been able 
to accomplish the most, in this department, are Suharunpore, 
Lahore, and Rawul Pindee ; though at some of the others, 
too, a good work has been done. At Umballa, for exam- 
ple, the number of girls under instruction is about 100. 
At Hoshyarpore there is a school composed of Hindoo 
girls of the upper classes, with 53 names on the roll, and an 
average daily attendance of 38. This school was organized 
some years ago by Mrs. Chatterjee, and now it is managed 
entirely by Miss Chatterjee. 

At Jullunder there is a non-christian Grirls School, with 
about 80 pupils. The success of this institution is due 
largely to the efficiency of a native Christian Mistress, who 
was educated in the Deyrah Christian Grirls School, and who 
works under the superintendence of Mrs. Groloknath. 

The work at Lodiana among women and girls has for 
years been conducted largely, though not exclusively, by 
agents of the English Society for Promoting Female Educa- 
tion in the Fast, who work hand in hand with the ladies of 
our Mission. 

The Mission at Lahore is equally favored by the co- 
operation of the agents of another English Society — The 
Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society. 
The principal worker at this station connected with our 
Mission, is Miss Thiede, a German lady who joined us in 
1870, and who has always been an indefatigable worker. 

Several other ladies, residents of Lahore, have assisted 
in the work. Of the schools superintended by them those 
belonging to Mrs. Anderson received special commendation, 
this year, from the Educational Department of the Q-overn- 
ment. 

But in none of our stations has the number of pupils 
in the Grirls Schools risen so high as at Suharunpore. In 
one year the number on the rolls there was as high as 542. 
This took place under the management of Mrs. Calderwood, 
whose zeal and energy in this sort of work has seldom been 
surpassed. The Municipal Committee at Suharunpore, 

5 



34 ORPHANAGES. 

composed mainly of native gentlemen, has formally record- 
ed its high appreciation of her work, besides giving pecu- 
niary help. When she was obliged to leave the country 
for a season, the work in this department suffered ; and 
having passed more tlian once from one hand to another, 
it has u(jt yet recovered its high standing. At present 
the largest number of pupils of this class, in our Mission, is 
found at Lahore ; the number reported being 514 ; besides 
98 zenana pupils. 

It may be mentioned that, in most places, the Girls as 
■well as the lioys Schools receive monthly pecuniary grants 
from Grovernment : while, in other places, as well as at 
Suharunpore, the Municipalities, which are composed almost 
entirely of Hindoos and Mahoniedans, sometimes make 
additional grants in the same way. 

Numerous instances have occurred of the happiest re- 
sults of this female education. Many appear to have 
gained a saving knowledge of the truth ; though for 
obvious reasons the number of baptisms has been small. 
But tlie value of this w^ork depends, not only on the sal- 
vation of individual women, here and there, but on the 
general enlightenment of the class, and the removal of 
prejudices against Christianity. An intelligent native 
once said to a missionary , "It you get our women converted, 
it will be an easy thing to convert tlie men." Degraded, 
in one sense, as the women of India are, they exert a 
powerful influence over the other sex, just as women do 
in other parts of the world. 

III. — Okph\nagks. 

In 1837 — less than three years after the foundation of 
the Mission was laid — a great famine occurred in the 
Nortli West Provinces, which tlirew hundreds of orplians 
on the public. This gave rise to the large orphanages of 
Agra and Futtoligurh. The Punjab was not much aii'ected 
by that famine ; yet even in the I'unjab, both tlien and 
ever since, there have been orphans to be provided for ; and 
Magistrates have found it convenient to send them, from 
time to time, to such missionaries as were willing to take 
charge of tliem. 

Eaily in 1836 a girl was sent to the missionaries at 



ORPHANAGES. 35 

Lodiana by the Magistrate of Kiirnaul ; and in the same 
year a hoy, by the Magistrate of Delhi. This was the 
beginning of the two orplianges at that station. 

Before the end of the year the number of orphan {/irlK 
grew to about half a dozen. These were soon sheltered 
in a house built contiguous to one of the new Mission 
houses, and placed under care of Mrs. Newton. 

In the course of a year or two a number of orphan boys 
were brought to us. These were provided for in another 
part of the premises, and put in charge of Mr. Porter. 

In 18;38 Mr. Campbell, one of the missionaries at Suha- 
runpore, received about 30 orphan boys from Agra and 
Muttra. This was the beginning of the Boys Orphanage 
there. 

In 1840 the orphan boys at Lodiana were transferred to 
Suharunpore, — it being deemed unnecessary to have two 
such institutions in the same Mission. 

In 1846, when Mr. Camyibell went to America, the few 
boys remaining were distributed among the stations : and 
the school was suspended. 

In 1847, on the occasion of 6 orphans being sent by Sir 
Henry Lawrence, it was re-opened by Mr. Caldwell, as 
an Industrial School. The chief industry tauglit was 
carpentry. But this never came to much. In after years 
some of the boys were sent to Roorkee, to learn engineering : 
but this also was a partial failure. Since then a few have 
learnt gardening, in the Botanical Garden at Suharunpore. 
As an Industrial School, more could probably be done for 
it, if a missionary of mechanical genius, or one skilled in 
some sort of manual work, were at the head of it. 

The number of orphan boys in that institution, at the 
present time, is about 40. 

The number of girls in the Orphanage at Lodiana increased 
gradually, till there were as many as 40, or more. Even- 
tually, about the year 1871, it was amalgamated with the 
Christian Girls Boarding School at Deyrah. Prior to 
this amalg-amation it had been superintended and taught, 
successively, by Mrs. Newton, Mrs. Janvier, Mrs. Rudolph, 
Mrs. Porter, and Mrs Myers. 

The number of orphans that have been educated in these 
two institutions cannot now be ascertained without difficul- 
ty. Almost all, if they had remained out, would have 



36 ORPHANAGES, 

been brought up in Ilindooism or Mahomcdanipm. As it 
was, the}' were educated in the faith of Christianity ; and 
a goodly number have become Church members. Some, 
it is true, have apostatized, and become Mahomedans ; and 
some have become openly wicked, without renouncing the 
Christian name. Such have brought great disgrace on 
themselves, and injured the cause of Christ. Still the 
number, from both institutions, who have filled important 
places in the Church, or who have, at least, maintained an 
ordinarily fair Christian character, is sufficient to justify 
the money and time bestowed on them, — apart from the 
consideration that to take in children, when deprived of 
parental care, and to nourish them till they are able to 
provide for themselves, is an act of charity demanded of us 
as followers of Christ. 

As nearly as can now be ascertained, not less than six 
of the Suharuupore orphans have been ordained to the 
Go.-;pel ministry ; of whom four are still living, — three of 
them working in connection with the Lodiana Mission, and 
one, in the United Presbyterian Mission. Besides these, a 
dozen or more have been employed as Catechists or Teachers. 

From among the pupils of the Female Orphanage, one 
is, at this time, the wife of a Licentiate Preacher ; and ten 
are, or have been, wives of ordained Native Ministers ; 
while about as many have been the wives of Catechists, or 
have been employed as Teachers and Bible Women. 

But the good fruit of these Orphanages is not confined 
to the first generation. Their children have, in some in- 
stances, trod in the footsteps of their pious parents. For 
example, from among the sons of ten ministers, whose 
wives came from our Orphanage, one is the Head Master of 
a Mission High School, one has just finished his education 
for the Bar, after graduating with honor at an English 
"University ; and as he is a professed Christian, it may be 
hoped that he will make his influence felt for good among 
his countrymen. One is a student of theology, and one is 
an ordained missionary.* Of the daughters of these ten 
ministers three are wives of men holding the same office as 
their fathers, — one is a Superintendent and Teacher of Mis- 
sion Bazar Schools ; one is a subordinate teacher in a Girla 

* The student mentioned here bus since been ordained. 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 37 

Boarding School ; one is a student of medicine, and an 
assistant to a Medical Lady Missionary ; one was the wife 
of a Christian teacher and elder, who has since been or- 
dained as a missionary ; and one is the exemplary and en- 
fluential wife of a converted Native Prince : while one, of 
the third generation, is recognized as a Native Lady Mis- 
sionary. Mention might be made of others too, who have 
done honor to the Christian training received in the Or- 
phanage. One such, for example, is a native lady, who has 
brought up a large family in a way which promises a 
career of usefulness for most, if not all, of her children. 
One of her sons is already an active member of the church, 
while she, not content with the influence she exerts in her 
own family, has been setting an example to other Christian 
women, by the voluntary help she gives to the missionary 
ladies of the station in their evangelistic w^ork. 

Of those who are engaged in secular pursuits, it is im- 
possible to speak in terms of praise only. Some have 
turned out to be inveterately lazy, as well as worthless 
in other respects ; while others are industrious, and exem- 
plary as Christians. Some of these are found among Mr. 
Carleton's settlers at Suntoke Majra, and at Annee. The 
number of these, at present, who were educated in Orphan- 
ages, is 27; of whom 18 are married, and 9, unmarried. 
The members of the Annee settlement, Mr. Carleton says, 
are spoken of by the heathen of that region, as recommend- 
ing the Grospel by their lives, more than it is recommended 
by the preaching they hear. 

IV. — Medical Missionary Work. 

The value of Medical missionary work was recognized more 
than 50 years ago, — the advantage of it having been experi- 
enced in Southlndia and Siam, and in other parts of the Hea- 
then world. It was my wish, therefore, after finishing my 
theological course, to study medicine, and thus become doubly 
qualified for missionary work ; but as the Committee wished 
me to proceed to India, with Mr. Wilson, as soon as possi- 
ble after my ordination, the idea of combining the practice 
of medicine with preaching had to be abandoned. Not 
knowing, however, how I should be situated with respect 
to Medical advice, I procured a number of Medical and 



38 MKniCAL MISSIONARY WORK. 

Surgical books, and a small number of Surgical and Dental 
instruments, with a view to any emergency that might 
arise : and during the voyage out, round the cape, I en- 
deavored to obtain from these books as mucli knowledge, 
especially of medicine, as was practicable. On reaching 
Calcutta I obtai7ied a good supply of medicines also. I was 
able consequently, in the course of our journey up tiie 
country, to treat a few sick natives with success ; and so 
also a few of the Mission employees, soon after we reached 
Lodiana. It then happened that a press Moonshee became 
very ill ; and after being treated by the native Doctors with 
no ho])e of recovery, he asked me to do something for him. 
As the case seemed otherwise hopeless, I thought it my 
duty to do what I could ; and by the good providence of 
God my treatment was successful. The news of this soon 
spread over the city, and the sick began to flock to my 
house,— so that I soon found myself in the midst of a 
regular medical practice. Difficult cases of course I could 
not undertake ; yet it was hard to persiiade the natives, 
that, if I could cure some diseases, I could not cure all.* 
From an English Surgeon at Lodiana I did indeed get 
Bome instruction, but not enough to enable me to bear the 
heavy burden of responsibility which w^as gathering upon me. 

There was hope of relief, however ; for in the year 1842 
the Board sent out a regular physician. Dr. Willis Green, 
to take up the work. But unfortunately, after being at 
Lodiana only a few months, he came to the conclusion that 
the climate of India did not suit him ; and so he went 
back to his home in Kentucky. His abandonment of the 
work was no small disappointment to me. 

Shortly after this I was transferred to Subathoo, where 
I was not known as a doctor, and so I had an opportunity 
of slipping out of a practice which I felt quite unequal to. 
But my place was soon taken by the Bev. A. Budolph, 
who, though not an M. D., had already gained some expe- 
rience, and who was far more competent to treat the sick 



* There was a Government Dispensary in the neighborhood, in 
charge of a Native Doctor; and when I urged patients with dan- 
gerous diseases to go there, they would sometimes reply that they 
had more faith in my treatment than in that of the Government 
])()(;tor, because what I did was done for God's sake, while what 
bo did was duuo for the pay he got. 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY WOKK. 39 

than I had ever been. He went to work, moreover, in a 
more systematic way, — "building- a small Dispensary on the 
Mission premises, and employing a compounder to assist 
him. This compounder, taught from the beginning by 
Mr. Rudolph, afterwards attained a higher position some- 
where down the country ; and a son of his has for many 
years been a Catechist, and. a respected elder, in our Mission 
at Allahabad. 

The Kev. J. R. Campbell, having studied medicine, for a 
while, before coming to India, was able to practise more or 
less, at Suharuupore, as long as he lived. 

The first regular physician, connected with the Lodiana 
Mission, after Dr. Green, was my son, Dr. J. Newton, Jun., 
a graduate of the Medical College in theUniversity of Penn- 
sylvania. He came to India independently of the Board, in 
1858, and became a member of the Mission in I860.* His 
first regular work, as a doctor, was in the Mission at Kup- 
oorthula, where he was associated with the liev. Mr. Wood- 
side. Afterwards, from 1866 to 1880, he was stationed at 
Subathoo, where he had a Dispensary ; and, in his preach- 
ing tours, he practised medicine in the villages also. 

Within the last three years the Mission has been re- 
inforced by two other regular physicians — Dr. M. B. 
Carleton, and Dr. C. W. Forman. The latter, like Dr. 
Newton, received his appointment from the Board after 
coming to India. He is stationed at Kussoor,f while 
Dr. Carleton works during the cold season at Ladwa, and 
during the summer in the district of Kooloo, among the 
mountains, where his father has a Christian settlement. 
Neither of these can be said to have had his plans of work 
yet fully developed. 

The Rev. F. J. Newton, having been obliged to go to 
America, in 1877, to recruit his health, spent part of his 
time, while there, in studying medicine. He was not able, 
however, to remain long enough to get a degree ; yet a 
course of two years at the Jefferson Medical College in 
Philadelphia qualified him to do much for the benefit of 
the sick. He has accordingly opened a Dispensary, on a 
small scale, at Ferozepore, (where he has been stationed for 

* He was afterwards ordained to the ministry, by the Presbytery 
of Lodiana. 
■ f Ke has since been transferred to Lodiana. 



40 MBDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 

the last four years,) daily treating a number of patients 
during the summer, while in the winter he connects medical 
work Avith his itinerant preaching. 

Both he and Dr. Carleton are anxious to see a Ilural 
Medical Mission established, where there might be not 
only a Dispensary, but a Hospital, so as to bring healing 
as well as the Grospel to multitudes in the villages, who 
have no other medical or surgical help. The great diffi- 
culty about such a scheme is the want of funds. Were 
the means forth-coming, such a plan might work much 
good ; though doubtless it should begin on a small scale. 
This at least is the opinion expressed by an experienced 
Medical Missionary in regard to all Medical Mission work. 

For several years past there has been a Mission Dispen- 
sary, at Lahore, under a Native Doctor. The daily aver- 
age of patients last j'car was 59. The first doctor employed 
did well professionally, but his character as a Christian 
proved so faulty that it was found necessary to dispense 
with his services. The one now in charge. Dr. Esa Das, 
bears a high Christian character, and is an elder of the 
church. He makes himself useful not only as a practi- 
tioner, but as a voluntary preacher. He obtained his 
medical knowledge in the American Methodist Mission of 
Oude and llohilcund, — where also he was baptized. The 
Kev. Ahmed Shah, having some knowledge of the old Gre- 
cian system of medicine, practices somewhat at Jagraon, 
where he is stationed. The llev. Abdoollah also has a small 
practice in and about Ghorawaha. Indeed there are few 
missionaries who are not in the habit of giving medicines 
for simple diseases. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, it should be 
mentioned that a native apothecary trained by Dr. New- 
ton, whose name was Sterling, was for some years in charge 
of a Mission Dispensary at Shahabad, under the supervi- 
sion of the Umballa missionaries ; but Shahabad has since 
been given up as one of our stations. 

As to the advantage of Medical Work, as a missionary 
agency, perhaps the most that can be said, thus far, is 
that it makes a favorable impression on the native mind, 
in respect to the character of Christianit}' ; and it concili- 
ates many who would otherwise be hostile to missionaries. 
One or two instances may be mentioned to illustrate this. 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY WORK. 41 

When I was at Lodiana, one of our bitter opponents, at 
one of the preaching places, was a Mahomedan Kashmeree. 
It so happened, however, that his wife became very ill ; 
and he asked me to see her. I went accordingly to his 
house, saw the case, and gave her medicine. In a few days 
she recovered. From that time the man never again 
opened his lips in the way of opposition, though he was a 
frequent hearer. — A man at Lahore not only opposed, but 
was very abusive ; and Dr. Esa Das came in for a share 
of the abuse ; but the good doctor had occasion, once, to 
lay his adversary under special obligation, by his medical 
practice — thus returning good for evil : and the man was 
completely won over — acknowledging the great wrong he 
had been guilty of : and now he is a quiet listener. 

None of our medicals require the patients to wait for 
their medicine till all are assembled, as is done in some 
Missions, when a portion of Scripture is read and expound- 
ed, and a prayer offered ; though an assistant is sometimes 
employed to read and speak to those who are waiting 
their turn to be treated. It is thought better to adopt the 
plan of dropping a word to individuals, occasionally, as 
opportunity offers. 

It might be mentioned that there is a Medical Missionary 
Society in the Punjab — one of the fruits of the Missionary 
Conference held at Lahore at the end of 1862 — a Society 
which not only pays the local expenses of some of the 
Medical Missions, but assists in educating Native Christians 
for this work. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the Grovernment Medical 
College, at Lahore, is now open to women — both European 
and Native ; some of whom receive instruction only in 
nursing, while others go through a regular course of medi- 
cal study : and so much importance does the Grovernment 
attach to the equipment of women for medical practice, that 
it gives a stipend to a certain number of female students, to 
support them during the period of study. One of the Bible 
Women at Lahore, taking advantage of this opening, has 
lately entered on a four year's course of study, with the 
view of practising, hereafter, as a Missionary, among women 
and children. This is the wife of Dr. Esa Das. 

It is not easy to exaggerate the importance of female 
medical work in India. Ladies of different Societies, with 

6 



42 POOB HOUSES, LEPKK ASYLBMS, &C. 

their dispensaries and zenana practice, are doing a great 
work iu other parts of India ; and some also in the Punjab. 
Of these, working on a larger or a smaller scale, may be 
mentioned, in particular, (1) Of the Church of England, 
Miss Engelmann, at Delhi ; Miss Zeiyen, at Kurnaul ; Miss 
Hewlett and Miss Sharp, at TJmritsur ; Miss Mitcheson, at 
Peshawur; Miss Grimwood, at Ujnala; and Miss Bose, at 
Turrun Tarun : — (2) Of an English undenominational 
Society, Miss Greenfield, at Lodiana :— (3) Of the English 
Baptist Mission at Delhi, Miss Thome: — (4) Of the Ame- 
rican U. P. Mission, Miss E. E. Gordon and Mrs. Johnson, 
at Goordaspore : — and (5) of our own Mission, Mrs. E. P, 
Newton, at Lodiana ; and Miss Thiede, at Lahore. All these, 
except the two belonging to the Lodiana Mission, are un- 
derstood to have Dispensaries, and some have Hospitals as 
well ; while at least two of them have Training classes. 

It will be seen that the Church of England Societies are 
quite a head of us in this department of the work. 

A number of the Lady Missionaries in India, who prac- 
tise medicine, are fully equipped for the work, having 
received the degree of M. D.; while all are doing much 
good, not only by healing the diseases of a multitude of 
women and children, who otherwise must be left to suffer, 
and perhaps to die, but by bringing to them, at the same 
time, tlie knowledge of salvation. 

Missionary agents of this class, if of the right stamp, 
would receive a warm welcome in the Lodiana Mission. 
We should rejoice, indeed, to see a well qualified Lady Doc- 
tor added to the working staff of every mission station. 

Y. — Poor Houses, Leper Asylums, &c. 

For more than twenty years there has been a Poor House 
on the Mission premises at JuUunder, supported partly 
by the interest accruing on a donation of Rs. 6,000 made 
to the Mission by Col. Lake; the conditions of the donation 
being, that for the first ten years the principal should not 
be touched. At the end of ten years Rs. 1,000 were to be 
devoted to any missionary object the Mission might desig- 
nate ; and so another sum of Rs. 1,000 after every five 
years, till the whole was disposed of; the interest all 
through, however, being used for the Poor House only. 



POOR HOUSES, LEPER ASYLUMS, &C. 43 

A portion of the expense is met by the Municipality o£ 
Jullunder, and something is contributed by the Europeans 
resident at the station. The house built for this purpose 
is capable of holding- only a small proportion of the paupers 
to whom alms from this source are dispensed by the 
Missionary. The number reported in 1880 was 65, and 
the average monthly expenditure was Es. 75. Some of 
the inmates from time to time have been Christians. 

In 1848 a Poor House, with a Dispensary and a small 
Hospital attached, intended partly for Lepers, was estab- 
lished at Umballa. This was kept up for several years, 
being supported partly by private contributions, and partly 
by Grovernment, but remaining all the while under the 
care of our missionaries, who regularly preached the Grospel 
there. Eventually, however, it was abolished by order 
of the Gl-overnment, and a new Asylum was built Of this 
Mr. Carleton, who was then stationed at Umballa, gives 
the following account : — 

" The Grovernment ordered a Leper Asylum to be broken 
up, because it was too near a New Hospital and Dispensary 
in the city. The English officials, civil and military, came 
to the missionary, and asked him to accept funds to build a 
new Asylum. The missionary secured a good piece of 
ground, and at once began the work. The distinguished 
Christian men and women of the cantonment furnished all 
the funds required." 

" The 9th Lancers was commanded by Col. Grrant. He 
and Mrs. Grrant collected from the Regiment from 150 to 
175 rupees a month, while GreneralJohnstone, commanding 
the station, collected as much more ; so that Rs. 300, and 
more, was sent to the missionary each mouth, to build the 
Asylum and support the lepers. The Asylum was built 
at the cost of about Rs. 2,200, and the English officials 
continued to support all the lepers till May, 1857, when the 
Mutiny broke out, and the military men went to Delhi/' 

More recently this institution has depended not only on 
local contributions, but on what is sent by a Society in 
England called the " Mission to Lepers in India,'^ an insti- 
tution which owes its origin to the benevolent efforts of 
"W. C. Bailey, Esq., a gentleman who was once connected 
with our Mission at Umballa, and who is nov/ one of the 
Secretaries of a Missionary Society in Great Britain. 



44 POOR HOUSES, LEPER ASYU'MS, &C. 

TliG luimbor of inmates now, in 1(S84, is 40. The number 
of ba})tiisms in tho At>ylum down to the present time has 
been GO. A prayer room has been built lately in connec- 
tion with the Asylum, which is very convenient for the 
religious services held there regularly. 

There is a Leper Asylum at Deyrah also, which the Mis- 
sionaries have some connection with. The number of in- 
mates in 1881 was 75. A Christian leper is employed to 
read the Bible and give religious instruction daily. This 
Christian leper, besides teaching the younger ones and the 
children to read, has taught them also to sing hymns, 
At the end of 1883 three women were spoken of as candi- 
dates for baptism. Expenses are met by local contributions 
from Europeans, and by remittances from the "Mission to 
Lepers m India. ''^ 

The Asylum, however, which has excited the greatest 
interest in the Mission, and the one which seems to have 
done the most good, is the one at Subathoo. This origina- 
ted in a small Poor House more than 40 years ago. It 
was under the immediate care of the missionary, and was 
supported by the monthly contributions of the Europeans 
residing there. There were a few lepers in it from the first. 
It grew however into an institution of importance after 
Dr. Newton was posted to that station. As a physician he 
took special interest in the lepers, and experimented, with 
the view of discovering some medicine by which the pro- 
gress of the disease might be arrested; and at one time he 
thought he had made such a discovery. He built a num- 
ber of houses at a short distance from the Mission House, 
that he might have the objects of his benevolent attentions 
near him. He regarded them not as medical patients only, 
but as emphatically the poor who need to have the Gospel 
preached to them. So there was a small building erected 
which answered the double purpose of a Dispensary and a 
Chapel. Here the lepers voluntarily assemble every day, 
for worship, besides coming for the special service on the 
Lord's Day, which is intended for the little Christian 
conmiunity of the station as well. Out of the 80 or 90 le- 
pers in the Asylum a few are Christians, and some who have 
not been baptized give such attention to the reading and 
exposition of the word, and sing with such apparent zest, 
that they seem really to be Christians in heart. 



POOR HOUSES, LEPER ASYLUMS, &C. 45 

Every year some are added to the little Church ; yet the 
lepers die so rapidly that the number of Christians among 
the living has rarely, if ever, been so much as 20. 

This Asylum is supported at an expense of five or six 
thousand rupees, annually. Of this the sum of Rs. 2,400 
(and sometimes more) is furnished by " The Mhsion to 
Lepers'^ referred to above ; while voluntary contributions 
come from benevolent individuals, living, not only at the 
neighbouring stations, but in distant parts of India. One 
gentleman alone, who is personally conversant with the 
work, has contributed Rs. 200 a year for the last four or 
five years. Contributions are annually acknowledged from 
some parts of the United States also. 

A late census has shown the number of lepers in India, 
at this time, to be 135,000 ! 

Poor Houses have been under the care of our missionaries 
at other stations also. 

For example, there was one built on the outskirts of the 
Christian village lot at Lodiana, in the early days of the 
Mission. It was supported altogether by local contribu- 
tions. The number of paupers at the end of 1849 was 41. 
But this institution has long since ceased to exist. 

So at Lahore. Soon after the arrival of the missionaries 
there, they were asked to be the almoners of the European 
residents, and also of the young Maharajah Duleep Singh, 
who, although then living at Futtehgurh, sent a monthly 
sum for the relief of 100 of the poor at this old capital of 
the Sikhs. The missionaries of course were glad to be the 
medium of such charities to about 200 men and women, 
afflicted with blindness, lameness, leprosy, the infirmities of 
age, &c. Afterwards, however, this charge was relinquished, 
and the Poor House is now a Municipal Institution. 

Besides the temporal benefit conferred on the poor, by 
such disbursement of alms, and the offer of spiritual benefits 
at the same time, it is believed that charities so manifestly 
Christian cannot fail to affect the public mind favorably, in 
respect to the source whence such charities flow ; though it 
must be confessed that few things are harder for the hea- 
then than to believe that such beneficence can spring from 
other than selfish motives. It is often intimated that we 
are aiming to lay up a store of merit that may avail for us 
in the matter of salvation. Yet as our preaching is all 



46 THB PRESS AND LllKRATURE. 

opposed to the doctrine of salvation by works, it may "be 
hoped that some at least will be led to Bee the true charac- 
ter of Christian benevolence. 

VI. — The Press and Literature. 

When Mr. Wilson and I were first in Calcutta, on our way 
to Lodiana, we were advised to take with us a printing press. 
We accordingly bought an old-fashioned wooden press, 
(such as were still sometimes used in those days,j to- 
gether with a font or two of types, paper, and printing ink. 
These we got from the Baptist Mission Press, then working 
under the superintendence of the Pev. Wm. H. Pierce, a 
gentleman of most lovely character, who greatly befriended 
our predecessors as well as ourselves. We had, neither of 
us, any knowledge of press work, but Mr. Pierce gave us 
one of his own native compositors, to assist in inaugurating 
the work. In the course of the next year after our arrival, 
that is, in 1836, a small house was built, with three 
apartments, one for the types and press, another for blank 
paper and printed matter, and the third for a Book 
Bindery. 

Since then the printing office has been greatly enlarged, 
and furnished also with iron and lithographic presses. 

Superintendence and Training of Native Printers. 

Before Mr. Lowrie's departm-e for America, it was ar- 
ranged that Mr. Wilson should have charge of the school, 
and that I should take the press. 

When everything was ready, the compositor from Cal- 
cutta taught me, as well as he could, how to work the press ; 
and then he and I together undertook to teach some native 
apprentices. 

The superintendence of the Press passed from one hand 
to another ; but the only practical printer from abroad, 
that ever had charge of it, was Mr. Morris, who arrived 
from America in 1838, and remained about 6 years. This 
however was enough to make good printers of some of the 
native apprentices, among whom was one who gave so much 
satisfaction that he has been retained, as Foreman and 
General Manager, down to the present time. He began in 
1836, at the age of about 14, and now he is a grey-headed 



THE PRESS AND LITERATURE. 47 

man. He is almost everything that could be wished, but 
an open confessor of Christ. 

The missionaries responsible for this branch of the work, 
besides myself, have been Messrs. Porter, Morris, Janvier, 
Eudolph, Wherry, Kelso, and now 0. B. Newton. 

Early Issues from the Press. 

The first thing- issued from the press in furtherance of 
our great design, was a Persian tract entitled "-4 Sermon 
for the Whole World.^^ It consisted of what is commonly 
called " The Sermon on the Mount," with the last three 
verses of Matt. 4 :, for an introduction, and a supplement 
composed of passages selected from other parts of the New 
Testament, intended to set forth briefly the redeeming 
work of Christ, and ending with those words from Heb. 13 : 
" Now the Grod of peace that brought again from the dead 
our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, through 
the blood of the everlasting covenant, make you perfect in 
every good work to do his will, working in you that which 
is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom 
•be glory for ever and ever." 

At the same time we printed for Capt. "Wade, the Political 
Agent, who had greatly helped us in every way, a small 
Persian Newspaper called " The Lodiana Akhbar,'^ consist- 
ing of only four loosely printed 4to pages. Prior to the 
setting up of our press he had had copies of the "Akhbar" 
written out by hand. The circulation amounted to only 
about 30 copies. The articles were made up chiefly of 
political news from the neighbouring states, obtained offi- 
cially through News- writers employed by the Grovernment, 
or by the Representatives of those states, resident at Lodiana. 

Printing in different Languages. 

Printing has been done here in Persian, Oordoo, Punjabee, 
Hindee, Kashmeree, Sindhee, Chumba-Paharee, Thibetan 
and English ;— Oordoo in both the Persian and the Roman 
characters ; Punjabee, in the Groormookhee ; Hindee, in the 
Deva Nagree character ; Kashmeree, in the Persian charac- 
ter, modified by diacritical marks ; Sindhee in the Groor- 
mookhee character, somewhat modified ; and the Paharee, 
which is a dialect of Hindee, with a mixture of Punjabee, 
in a character called Thakooree. 



48 THE PRESS AND LITERATURB. 

For many years past all the books printed in the Persian 
character have been lithographed, this character having been 
found to be ill suited to typography. 

The Work of the Press. 

It is impossible to say, with absolute accuracy, how 
many pages of matter have been printed at Lodiana ; but, 
taking all issues together, the proximate number in the 
eight years of the first decade, that is, till 1844, was a little 
under 18,000,000 ; in the ^eco»d decade, over 39,000,000 ; 
in the third decade, over 55,000,000 ; in the fourth decade, 
about 80,000,000 ; in the fifth decade, nearly 75,000,000 ; 
making a total, within the 48 years which have elapsed 
since the press was first set up, of about 267,000,000 pages. 
This, besides English, was in the eight languages and 
dialects spoken in the Punjab and neighbouring countries. 

Expenses met. 

The cost of all this printing has been defrayed by the 
American Bible and Tract Societies, the Punjab Bible and 
Religious Book Societies, the Presbyterian Board of For- 
eign Missions, the Christian Vernacular Education Society, 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the Ijodi- 
ana Mission, and the Hyderabad Mission ; besides what 
has been paid for secular job work, by the Punjab Grovern- 
ment, the Maharajah of Kaslimeer, and others. 

The issues from the Mission Depository, in 1883, amount- 
ed to more than 4-3,000 books and tracts. Since then 
almost the whole stock of religious books has been trans- 
ferred, by a special arrangement, to the Depository of the 
Punjab Bible and Religious Book Societies, at Lahore. 

It should be mentioned that for many years past the 
work at our press has been done by contract, — the contrac- 
tor being the man mentioned before, as having become an 
apprentice when the press was first set up. The Litho- 
graphic Presses are his personal property. 

The Binding is done in the same way, the contractor in 
this Department being, at first, a person who had been 
educated in the Suharunpore Orphanage ; and now, one of 
his sons. 

It is worthy of consideration whether our missionaries 
ought not to be relieved of all this kind of care, by selling 



THE PRESS AND LITERATURE. 49 

the Press to natives. There are now so many printing esta- 
blishments in the Punjab, that it ■would be easy to get our 
work done, without having a press o£ our own. 

Confiagrations. 

Twice in the course of the first 25 years, two very seri- 
ous reverses occurred. In the beginning of 1845 the press 
building was burnt, and most of its contents destroyed. 
The cause of this was never ascertained. The loss, chiefly 
from the consumption of books, was about Rs. 20,000. 

When the establishment was restored, the Depository 
was built separate from the printing office. This divided 
the risk : but at the time of the mutiny, in 1857, the whole 
stock of books and tracts was again destroyed by fire. This 
time it was clearly the work of incendiaries, who sympa- 
thized with the mutineers. 

Distribution. 

In the earlier days of the Mission it was usual to distri- 
bute books and tracts gratuitously, to all who asked for 
them, — on the sole condition of their being able to read. 
For this reason missionaries of all Societies who required 
books for distribution, received freely whatever they inden- 
ted for. It was difficult then for the Press to keep pace 
with the demand. So many as 25,000 copies were disposed 
of by the Lodiana missionaries, during a single visit to the 
Hurdwar Fair. And certainly these great fairs are excel- 
lent places for putting our books into circulation. 

Selling. 

More recently the policy of selling has been adopted ; 
and though the price asked for the books is only nominal, 
the demand now is not nearly so great as it was in the 
days of free distribution. Small tracts, however, are still 
given gratuitously. 

Colporteurs. 

At almost every station colporteurs are employed to sell 
our books, — some by the Mission, but more by the Punjab 
Societies. Special facilities for this are found at the more 
important of the Railway Stations. People are often glad 
to get something to read while journeying by rail. 

7 



50 THF, PRESS AND LTTKRATIRE. 

But Colporteurs were sometimes employed in earlier 
times too, when books, as well as tracts, were given with- 
out pay : yet with varied success. Carried into hostile 
states, the books have sometimes been confiscated — but not 
always to be destroyed. 

Scriptures in Cahul. 

Shortly after the Mission was established at Lodiana, 
two or three English gentlemen were sent on a political 
mission to Cabul. One of these gentlemen, after being 
there a short time, wrote to one of the missionaries at 
Lodiana, stating that many of the Afghans resident there 
had expressed a desire to become acquainted with the 
Jewish and Christian Scriptures, and asking to have a 
mule load of them sent. This desire of the Cabulees to see 
our Sacred books was confirmed by a letter received at a 
later date from an American gentleman in the service of 
the Ameer Dost Mahomed. 

In the light of such facts we know how to estimate the 
nervousness of certain officials, who always scent danger 
when eiforts are made to disseminate Grospel truth. After 
the date of the letters now referred to, when Afghanistan 
was virtually occupied by British troops, with a friendly 
Sovereign on the throne, and many of the inhabitants were 
living on good terms with the English, the Lodiana 
missionaries, at the special request of a Christian officer in 
that country, despatched sevtTal mule loads of Bibles, and 
Portions of the Bible, with a view to their being given to 
any who might wish to obtain them. The road lay through 
Ferozepore. Cupt. (afterwards Sir Henry) Lawrence was 
then the Political Agent at that place. lie was both a 
friend of the Missionaries and a Christian ; but, being a 
man under authority, he did not dare to allow these boxes 
of Bibles to pass, without first informing his superior officer, 
Mr. Greorge Clerk, at Umballa.* So they were detained 
till Mr. Clerk's answer could be received. The answer was 
"You can let them go, if you have a regiment of rifles to 
send with them." Of course they had to be sent back. 

Some years after this the Lahore missionaries sent a Col- 

* This was the p:entleman, who, as Sir George Clerk, was after- 
waido Guveruor of tlio 13umbuy Piusidoucy. 



THE PRESS AND LITERATUKE. 51 

porteur to Cabul with a supply of Scriptures : but they 
were disposed of in a way not anticipated. The books were 
seized, as something of doubtful character ; and by order of 
the Ameer they were carried to the Durbar to be inspected. 
"When it was found that they were the sacred books of Jews 
and Christians, they were distributed by the Ameer him- 
self among his courtiers then present, and the Colporteur 
was allowed to return empty. 

Waste ? 

No doubt multitudes of the books and tracts given gra- 
tuitously have been absolutely lost, at least as to the first 
intention of the distributors, but so are the most of G-od's 
gifts to men ; yet here, as elsewhere, we are sometimes 
reminded of those inspired words of the wise man, " Cast 
thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after many 
days." Two or three illustrations may be given. (1) A 
Suuyasee came one day to one of the missionaries at Lodia- 
na to learn something about Christ, — something more than 
he knew already. His story was, that a book called 
"Mangal Samachar," (literally. Good News,) had been given 
him at the Thanesur Fair. He had read the book, and 
had found the contents of it to be, indeed, the Grood News 
it professed to be. In his wanderings he had come to Ra- 
hon in the Jullunder Dooab. There he had learned that 
Lodiana was the place where such books were printed ; and 
to Lodiana he had come, without delay. This man soon 
gave evidence of being a true believer ; and in due time he 
was baptized. He was afterwards employed as a Catechist. 
Since then a daughter of his has become the wife of a 
preacher ; and his son is now a Scripture Reader in our 
Mission. (2.) In the course of an itineration, one of our 
missionaries was visited, at his tent, by a man who said 
that in his village some half dozen people were in the habit 
of meeting to read and hear a book which spoke about 
Jesus ; whose character and teachings they greatly admired. 
The book in question had been received by one of them at 
the Hurdwar Fair. (3.) One of the recent converts in our 
Mission was a pundit, who had a reputation for learning 
and sanctity. He hated Christians and abhorred Christian 
books, — yet without having read them. But it so happened 
that a copy of the New Testament, in Sanscrit, fell into his 



52 THE PRESS AXD LITERATURE. 

hands. This to him was a sacred language, and so he was 
induced to road the book. The consequence was his con- 
version and baptism. 

Many such facts might be called to mind. 

But may not the printed truths oi' Christianity now lying 
unlieeded, be read at some future time and yield a rich 
harvest of converted souls ? A man in Lodiana once 
refused to have any of our books, because, though he was 
not, he said, afraid of their infliience on himself, he didn't 
know how they might affect his children, after his death ; 
for the children, finding these books in the house, would 
naturally say they must surely be good books, or their 
father would not have possessed them. 

Secular Printing. 

Besides purely religious works, there have been issues 
from the press of a different character, such as a Punjabee 
Dictionary and Grammar, and other books intended to aid 
foreigners in studying the language of the people ; also a 
few school books ; and various sorts of job work — chiefly 
for Government. 

Weekly Newspaper. 

Again, for some years past the Mission has published a 
weekly paper in Persian-Oordoo, named the " Noor Ufshan" 
(Light Scatterer) which is partly secular and partly reli- 
gious. The paper consists of 8 quarto pages. It is taken 
and read by both Christians and Heathen. The number 
of copies issued monthly, now in the year 1884, is between 
six and seven hundred. This, though it may seem small, 
is really a large number for an Indian Vernacular paper. 

Authorship. 

As to the religious books published at the Lodiana Press, 
the responsibility of original authorship, and of translation, 
belongs partly to the members of our Mission, and partly to 
others. In liindoe we have done almost nothing. In Oordoo 
a large number of the tracts, and many of the volumes 
printed by us, were prepared by our own missionaries. In 
Punjabee we are responsible for a large proportion of what 
has been printed. 



CONVERTS. 53 

VII. — Converts. 
Number. 

The first baptism in the Mission took place in 1837. 
Since then the body of converts has gradually increased, 
till, at the present time, the number of communicants is 
about 500. Some of these, it is true, were baptized in other 
Missions ; but it is equally true that many of the converts 
of our Mission are now members of churches not connected 
with us. 

It must be noted also, that, of the present members of 
our churches, some are not direct converts from heathenism, 
but children and grand-children of such converts. 

Another fact to be remembered is that death has been at 
work in the churches all these years ; and as many church 
members are now in their graves, probably, as we are able 
to count among the living. 

According to the census of 1881, the entire native Chris- 
tian community of the Punjab — communicants and non- 
communicants together — then comprised about 4,000 souls. 
The communicants and adherents, in our Mission, in 1883, 
numbered altogether 1,171. 

Conditions of Baptism. 

It is not pretended that all the baptized are truly con- 
verted ; for though our principle is to baptize only those 
who give credible evidence of having been regenerated, it 
has often been made painfully obvious, that our judgment 
was not infallible. Many have openly apostatized, and 
others for various gross offences, long unrepented of, have 
been excommunicated ; though of both these classes some 
have ultimately been restored. The number of baptisms 
might have been vastly multiplied, if all candidates for the 
ordinance had been admitted ; but in this way the Church 
would probably have been filled with merely nominal Chris- 
tians, and the number of apostates too would have been 
greatly increased. 

Sexes. 

Male converts have been more numerous than female. 
It could hardly have been otherwise ; since direct mission- 



54 CONVERTS. 

ary influonce has liardly reached the female part of the 
community, till within the last few years, — to say uuthiug 
of special difficulties connected with tlie baptism of women, 
while their male relations are still heathen. 

Natioiwlities. 

Of the persons baptized in our Mission we reckon almost 
all the nationalities found in the Punjab, such as Tunjubies, 
Hindoostanies, Bengalies, Nepalies, Paharies, Kashmeries, 
Afghans, Israelites, and Parsies. 

Ancestral Religiom. 

In respect to ancestral religion, some were Hindoos, some 
Mahomedans, some Sikhs, some Lai Bagies, some Jews, and 
at least one Zoroastrian, and one Jain. 

Castes. 

All the principal castes, too, have their representatives 
among our converts,— such as Brahmans, Khuttries, Bun- 
yas, Jats, Syuds, Eajpoots, Faqeers of different orders, 
Chamars, Mehturs, &c. 

Social Rank. 

There is the same variety also in their social rank : — there 
being among them Pundits, Moonshies, Religious Teacliers, 
Schoolmasters, Princes, Soldiers, Farmers, Shop-keepers, 
Domestic Servants, Artizans, &c. 

Character of the Converts. 

When inquiry is made about the general character of 
these converts, it is enough perhaps to say that while some 
of them are most exemplary, not a few exhibit the frailties 
which might be expected of persons who from childhood were 
under the influence of heathen customs and principles, and 
who have not the advantage, yet, of a healthy public senti- 
ment, to sustain them in the steady practice of the higher 
virtues. A gradual improvement hovrever may be looked 
for, under the influence of pastoral instruction, Sunday 
school teaching, and the growth of a Christian public 
sentiment. So it must always be in the History of the 
Church. 



SPIRITUAL LABORS OF NATIVE CHRISTIANS. 55 



VIII.— Si'iRiTUAL Labors of Native Christians. 

A large proportion of the Native Christians, in every 
Mission, in its earlier stages, is likely to find employment 
in some kind of Mission work ; and so it has been with us. 

The work to be done is so great in proportion to the num- 
ber of missionaries sent out by the home Societies and Boards, 
that every convert who seems at all fit to be employed as a 
teacher, a colporteur, or a catechist, is eagerly enlisted 
lor the work ; and this the rather, in some cases, because 
the ban of society is almost sure to exclude men of good 
caste and social standing from their accustomed means of 
livelihood. And though we are able to be more particular 
now, than at first, in the selection of our agents, the number 
of Mission-paid workers, in various departments, is still large. 
But besides these we have now a considerable number of 

Volunteer Workers. 

These usually accompany the missionaries, and take part 
in preaching to the heathen ; though sometimes they do 
this work alone — either singly, or in companies of two or 
three. In Lahore there are four or five such volunteers, 
and the Keport for 1883 speaks of several volunteer preach- 
ers at Deyrah. The latter do not confine their preaching to 
the city, but on the last Saturday of every month, which is 
a holiday in all Grovernment offices, they extend their evan- 
gelistic efforts to the neighbouring villages. Similar work 
is done at other stations also. 

And the female members of our churches must not be 
excluded from the honor of this sort of labor. At Lahore, 
for example, several have done more or less in this way, — 
some of them poor women, with families. But the one who 
has done the most, by visiting and teaching in zenanas, is 
a native young lady, who is able to spare two or three 
hours daily, for this service of love. Mention should be 
made of a native widow lady also, at Lodiana, who some- 
times accompanies the missionary ladies there, in their 
evangelistic tours among the villages, rendering them in 
this way most valuable assistance. 

Some are active also in ministering, spiritually, to their fel- 
low Christians — both in the church and in the Sunday School. 



56 ORCJANIZKl) CHUttfHES AXD PASTORAL WORK. 

Such voluntary work is highly to bo commended : not 
only because it is a help to the missionaries, but because it 
evinces a Christian spirit on the part of the volunteers, and 
because it tends to the personal edification of all who are 
engaged in it. 

IX. — Organized Churches, and Pastoral Work. 

The Mission has been so far blessed in its work that 
churches have been organized at Lodiana, Suharunpore, 
Subathoo, Umballa, Deyi-ah, JuUunder, Lahore, Kawul Pin- 
dee, iloshyarpore, Ferozepore, Suntoke Majra, and Morinda. 

There was a chiu'ch organization at lloorkee also, but 
this is virtually, if not formally, defunct. The station 
having been made over to the Reformed Presbyterian Synod 
of North America, the few Christians at that place, who 
once belonged to our Mission, will naturally be cai-ed for 
by the missionary of that Synod. 

Most of our Mission churches are under the spiritual 
oversight of the Missionaries, aided by liuling Elders : and 
in some there are Deacons also, who look after the tempo- 
ralities of the church. In a few cases there have been 
acting, if not regularly installed, native pastors ; as at 
Jullunder, Iloshyarpore, Ferozepore, Deyrah, Suharun- 
pore, and Lodiana. At one time there was a native pastor 
at Lahore also. These pastors have never received much of 
their support from the congregations. This is because the 
congregations are too poor to make up their full salaries. 

In most cases the churches prefer the ministrations of 
missionaries ; and it is the opinion of some, that the spiritual 
interests of the churches will gain, in the long run, if largely 
ministered to by foreigners, till better qualified native 
pastors can be raised up : not indeed that some of the 
present native ministers are not highly qualified to instruct 
and build up the church : but such are not to be found 
everywhere ; and where they are wanting, perhaps the best 
plan, for the present, is for one of the Missionaries to have 
the nominal position of pastor, so as to be able to exercise 
a controlling influence, without acting unconstitutionally ; 
while yet he commits a large part of the work to the 
Ruling Elders,— that is, whore the Elders are qualified to 



CHRISTI.\N VILLAGES. 57 

minister in spiritual things. This, in the main, is the plan 
adopted at Lahore. The Elders and Deacons, for the most 
part, are able to preach acceptably ; and by dividing this 
service among themselves, and sharing it with the Mission- 
aries, they are able, one or other of them, to prepare for, 
and conduct, at least one service every Lord's Day, while 
they depend, altogether, for their support, on their secular 
occupations. 

It is not pretended that this plan has all the advantages 
of a stated pastorate ; but, as a temporary measure, nothing 
appears to answer so well ; while one special advantage of 
it is, that it teaches the Elders to look upon their office as 
something much more than a name. As to the Deacons 
taking part in pulpit duties, this must depend on whether 
the}' have natural and spiritual gifts for such work : and 
the same may be said of other members of the church. 
When such have been sufficiently proved, they may be 
formally ordained to the Elder's office. What can contri- 
bute more to the edification of the church, than for each 
member, under the supervision of the pastor, to exercise 
the gifts which the Lord has bestowed on him ! 

Church Buildings. 

Church buildings have been erected at Deyrah, Suharun- 
pore, Umballa, Lodiana, Grhorawaha, (connected with 
Hoshyarpore,) Lahore, and Rawul Piudee. At the other 
stations church services are performed in chapels, school 
houses, &c. It should be mentioned, that at Umballa there 
are two church buildings, — one at the city station, and the 
other at the cantonment sub-station, — with regular services 
in both ; while yet there is but a single church organiza- 
tion. The services in the city church are conducted by 
the Rev. Messrs. Bergen and Soonder Lai ; those in the 
cantonment church by the pastor, the Rev. Mr. Basten. 

X. — Christian Villages. 

In our Mission, as elsewhere in India, it is common for 
native Christians to congregate in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the houses occupied by the missionaries ; which, at 
most of our stations, is at a short distance from the heathen 
population. And the clusters of houses in which they 
live are commouly known as Christian Villages, 

8 



58 CHRISTIAN VILLAGES. 

Many arc opposed to this Village system, as it is call- 
ed, insisting that the converts should live in the midst of 
the heathen, so as to exert an influence there for good. 
The time will come, perhaps, when this can he done; 
but there are strong reasons why, at present, thoy should 
live together, separate from the heathen. (1) Isew con- 
verts are to be regarded as babes in Christ, and too weak, 
therefore, to exert much influence, singly, on the dense 
masses of heathenism around them. (2) The hostility of 
their old co-religionists might, in many instances, prove to 
be too strong for their faith not yet well matured. (3) It is 
natural for the weak and persecuted to cling to each other, 
and seek mutual support. (4) Congregational worship 
and pastoral oversight are facilitated by having the dwell- 
ings of the Christians near each other, and near the place 
of public worship. (5) The dread which Christian parents 
feel, of having their children brought up in immediate 
association with the children of their heathen neighbours, 
makes it reasonable that they should prefer living at a 
little distance, where they are surrounded by none but 
Christian families. 

Under the influence of such considerations the village 
system has held sway, more or less, at all our stations 
except Iloshyarpore, with its sub-station of Ghorawaha, and 
at Ferozepore. 

In all cases the ground on which the villages stand 
belongs to the Mission ; and in some cases the houses too. 
Native Christians have been encouraged, however, to build 
for themselves — having some sort of lease for the land : 
and this has been done by some, particularly at Lodiana and 
Saharunpore, and in the Christian settlement of Suntoke 
Majra : and at nearly all our stations probably some of 
the houses are owned by the occupants. 

Other Christian Settlements. 

The settlements established by Mr. Carleton at Suntoke 
Majra and Annee, are on a somewhat different footing from 
tlie other Christian villages. The laud on which Suntoke 
Majra stands, being then a waste, was given to Mr. 
Carleton by the Government, with a special view to its 
being settled by Christians. He alone is responsible for 
the success of the enterprise ; and his plan is to allot to each 



VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS OF NATIVE CHRISTIANS. 59 

of the settlers as much of the land as he can make good 
use of, — the proprietorship heing vested in him personally. 
The ground here is used mainly for pastoral purposes. Mr. 
Carleton's plan for the working of this settlement, as he 
informs us, is likely to undergo a change. 

The land on which Annee stands was bought by Mr. Car- 
leton with his own money; — so that he is the sole proprietor. 
The houses occupied by the settlers here, were built with 
money which he collected from his American and English 
friends. In neither one nor the other of these settlements 
has the Board any proprietary right ; and the Mission has 
no sort of control. The cultivators in this settlement are 
gradually becoming proprietors. 

It should be mentioned that Mr. Bose also undertook, 
some years ago, to establish a Christian farming settlement 
on land obtained for this purpose from the native Grovern- 
ment of Bahawalpore ; though up to this time few of the 
cultivators are Christians. The name given to this place 
is Greyabad. 

Mr. Woodside made a similar attempt in the Doon, near 
Deyrah, — giving to his settlement the name of Hopetown; 
but since his removal from the Doon and from the Lodiana 
Mission, and his becoming a member of the Furruckabad 
Mission, several hundred miles distant, this enterprise has 
fallen into decay. 

XI. — Various occupations of Native Christians. 

Besides those who are engaged directly in the service of 
the Church and Mission, as Missionaries, Pastors, Cate- 
chists, Colporteurs, School Masters, School Mistresses, 
Zenana Visitors, and Bible Women, we have been able to 
reckon, in our native Christian community, a Superintendent 
of a large Royal Estate, Medical practitioners, Apothecaries, 
Compounders, Dressers, Clerks in Government and Railway 
offices, Government Collectors, a Barrister, a Clerk of a 
Court, a Judge of the Small Cause Court, an Inspectress 
of Government Female Schools, Moonshies, Pundits, Police 
Officers, a Postmaster, Political Pensioners, Printers, Book- 
binders, Masons, a Blacksmith, Carpenters, Railway Fitters, 
Railway Firemen, Engine Drivers, Weavers, a Tailor, a 
Harness-maker, a Shoe-maker, a Goldsmith, Messengers, 



60 ST'N'DAY SCHOOLS AND BIBLE CLASSES. 

Small Contraotors, Pomestic Servants, Gordenors, Pay- 
laborers, Jinriksha Pullmen, Grooms, Shop-keepers, Agri- 
culturists, Cattle farmers, Fukeers, and Paupers. 

A few of these may be regarded as well-to-do in the 
world, though most of them are in the receipt of very 
small incomes. 

XII. — Sunday Schools and Bible Classes. 
1. Sunday Schools. 

Sunday Schools for the heathen — mainly pupils in tho 
week-day schools — have been common throughout the 
Mission almost from the beginning. The first was con- 
nected with a Goormookhee School at Lodiana, situated in 
•what the natives call "Molly Gunj." In some cases the 
attendance of week-day pupils is compulsory ; but even 
where this is not the case, the attendance is sometimes 
large, — for example, at Lahore and at Lodiana ; — the 
number of Sunday scholars at Lahore being about 200. 
TJmballa, at the end. of this year, reports 523 non-Christian 
Sunday scholars. 

The success of a Sunday School, in respect to numbers, 
where the attendance is voluntary, must depend largely on 
the interest the teachers are able to throw into the lessons : 
and unfortunately many teachers are not highly gifted 
in this way. 

There are Sunday Schools at some of our stations for 
Christian children too ; but these are of more recent origin. 
In some of them the International Sunday School Lessons 
are used. 

A difficulty experienced in keeping up these schools, in 
the Hot Season, is that where there are two church services, 
one in the comparative cool of the morning, and the otlier 
in the comparative cool of the evening, there is no time 
for the Sunday School except in the burning heat of the 
day, — when most people keep themselves shut up in their 
houses. To obviate this difficulty, the missionaries at 
Lodiana, a few years ago, determined to convert the Sunday 
morning congregation into a Sunday School. Another 
advantage of this plan is that it secures an unusual amount 
of Biblical instruction for the whole congregation — the old 
as well as the young-. 



SUNDAY SCHOOLS AlTO BIBLTi; CLASSES. 61 

One of the interesting- features of this school is that 
it is voluntarily attended by a g-oodly number of heathen 
children ; some of whom come regularly a distance of several 
miles : and when, at the close, the Superintendent questions 
the whole school on the subject of the lesson, these heathen 
children answer as promptly as the Christians, and some- 
times more intelligently. 

2. Bible Classes. 

At most, if not all our stations, there are likewise Bible 
Classes, or Bible Headings. These are for the benefit of 
the Christian community. Some are for men, conducted 
by the missionaries ; some for women, conducted by the 
ladies ; and some, for men and women together. These 
are usually held on week days. Mr. Carleton has a dnili/ 
Bible class for Christians, which is attended by heathen 
visitors also. Mr. Chatterjee has two classes every week, — 
one for the more advanced Christians, Catechists, &c. ; the 
other, for new converts and inquirers ; while Mrs. Chatter- 
jee in the same way teaches the women and children of the 
church. A plan recently adopted at Lahore is to have two 
classes every week. One of these is taught in English, and 
is composed of such members of the congregation— both 
men and women— as speak English well, and is attended by 
some of the lady missionaries also, — the lessons being, not 
consecutive passages of Scripture, but Biblical topics — 
both doctrinal and practical. The other is taught in Hin- 
doostanee — each lesson being a single portion of Scripture, 
selected with special reference to the capacity of those who 
compose the class. 

The missionary ladies at Lodiana are in the habit of pre- 
paring and printing a list of Scriptural topics — one for 
each week — a whole year in advance. These are for the 
weekly Bible Readings which they hold with the women of 
the congregation : and it should be remarked that some of 
the more intelligent of the native women take their turn 
with the missionaries in conducting these meetings. As 
these topics are prvnUd, the ladies at Lahore, and at some 
other stations outside of our own Mission, take advan- 
tage of this fact, and use them for similar women's meet- 
iug:s. 



62 BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR CHRISTIAN CHILDREN. 

XIII. — BoARDiNa Schools for Christian Children. 
1. For Native C/iristian Oirls. 

A Boarding School for the daughters of Native Chris- 
tians was opened at Deyrah, by Mr. and Mrs. Ilerron, in 
1859. Though it was a Boarding School, day scholars 
also were admitted ; and this has been tlie rule ever since. 

The great aim of the institution was to give Native 
Christian girls such a training as might fit them for use- 
fulness as members of the Christian community, and espe- 
cially as the joint heads of future Christian households. 
Such training must include, not only the education of the 
intellect, but also the cultivation of good domestic habits, 
and bringing them as far as possible under the influence of 
sound Christian principles. With all this in view, the girls 
were instructed in household duties, and in such scholastic 
knowledge as is considered necessary even for the poor ; 
while the inculcation of Grospel truth and Christian duty 
was always made to take the first place. But for some a 
higher standard of literary education was aimed at ; and 
that, not without success. 

The Managers thought it advisable to give much of the 
instruction through the medium of English. Many will 
doubt the wisdom of this : and much can be said against it. 
The truth probably is. that while a knowledge of English — 
even a familiar knowledge of it — is desirable for some of the 
higher classes of society, it is undesirable for the lower. 

As to Christian influence, this perhaps is more marked 
than any thing else ; for many have been hopefully con- 
verted there. 

In this enterprise, which was justly regarded as one of 
paramount importance, Mrs. Herron's zeal led her to 
exert herself beyond her strength ; but happily she had 
the assistance of Miss Mary Goloknath, now Mrs. Chatter- 
jee, who had herself been educated in Mrs. Fullerton's 
School at Agra. 

Mrs. Herron died in 1862, and in the early part of the 
next year, the school was committed to Miss Beatty. She, 
however, after a service of about seven years, was obliged 
on account of a complete failure of health, to return to 
America. The school was thus deprived of its second 
efficient Lady Superintendent. 



BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR CHRISTIAN CHILDREN. 63 

Meanwhile Mr. Herron, who had heen some years ahsent 
in America, and, being newly married, had now returned 
to the Mission, was stationed once more at Deyrah ; and 
the school was again committed to his charge. 

While in America he had collected a large sum of 
money to pay for the erection of new school-buildings ; 
and tliis was supplemented by a grant-in-aid from the 
Government, amounting to Es. 15,000. The outcome of 
this is a large school-house, with apartments for the Prin- 
cipal and the several teachers required for so large an in- 
stitution as this has now become. The buildings present an 
imposing appearance, and are well adapted to their purpose. 

The school continued to grow, until the new suite of 
buildings, capable of accommodating about 150 pupils, was 
fairly filled. This was due partly, however, to the fact, 
that in 1871 it had absorbed the Girls Orphanage trans- 
ferred from Lodiana to Deyrah, and from time to time had 
taken in other orphans. Yet a large proportion of the 
pupils have always been from Christian families. 

From the beginning of its History to the time when 
Miss Beatty took charge, the chief management and con- 
trol of the institution was in the hand of Mr. Herron 
himself ; and much of its success must be attributed to the 
interest he took in it, and the skill with which he managed 
it. Yet it was his conviction, expressed in the Report 
which he penned in 1863, that the School should be under 
the care of a lady missionary. His wish in this respect 
was fully gratified when Miss Beatty took charge. But 
after Miss Beatty' s health failed, it again fell to his lot to 
bear the responsibility of both principalship and manage- 
ment, until he was relieved, at the beginning of the pre- 
sent year, by Miss Pendleton, who had been sent out by 
the Board for this express purpose. 

While the achievements of this School are due primarily 
to Mr. Herron, and to the ladies already mentioned as having 
had much to do with it, in its earlier history, others also 
deserve to be mentioned, who from time to time have taken 
part in the work, — such as Miss Bolton, (now Mrs. Kelso,) 
who worked as a volunteer, Miss Woodside, Miss Thompson, 
(now Mrs. C. B. Newton,) Miss Craig, Miss Bacon, Miss 
Pratt, Miss Nelson, Mrs. Dr. Morrison, and Miss Herron. 
The present staff consists of Miss Pendleton, Miss Wherry, 



64 BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR CHRISTIAN CHILDREN. 

and Miss Evaus — daug-hter of tlie Eev. Mr. Evans, English 
Liiptifst Missionary iu this country. 

iStimulated in a measure, no doubt, by what was seen 
at iJoyrah, Missionaries of other Societies have since 
organized Boarding Schools for Girls, in dill'erent parts of 
tlie country. There is one such at Lahore, one at Lodiana, 
one at Umritsur, and one at Sealkote, — most, if not all of 
them, in a flourishing condition. 

2. For Native Christian Boys. 

A few years ago the Lodiana Mission determined to 
have a Boarding School for Christian Boys also. The 
object of this was to give them as good an education as is 
given to heathen boys in our High Schools, without sub- 
jecting them to the necessity of associating daily with the 
heathen, and being influenced by heathenish ideas and 
practices. A beginning was made at Lahore, by Mr. C. B. 
Newton, in 1875. Two years later, when his health failed, 
and he was obliged to leave India for a season, the school 
was transferred to Lodiana, to be under the management 
of Mr. E. P. Newton. This transfer was the more easy, 
because no buildings had yet been erected for it. The 
school was kept up at Lodiana for two years ; and then, for 
want of a Missionary who could devote his whole time to 
it, and still more for want of means to pay the salaries 
of first class teachers, (which was considered essential to 
success,) it was suspended. This was in the Spring of LS79. 

After this the Ladies' Missionary Society in Phil- 
adelphia, being convinced that this would be a legiti- 
mate work for tliem, undertook to raise money for the 
resuscitation and permanent establishment of the school. 
In 1882, therefore, a building was erected for its accommo- 
dation at Lodiaua, and early in 1883 it was re-opened under 
the auspices of Mr. Wherry. The number of pupils 
reported at the end of that year was 65 ; of whom 38 were 
boarders ; and 27, day scholars. The superintendence was 
afterwards transferred to Mr. McComb ; and Miss Pratt 
was appointed to assist in teaching. 

The building erected in 1882 being only a part of what 
had been planned, another of the same size lias been erected 
this year. The entire cost of these buildings has been 
about 25,UU0 rupees. 



BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR CHRISTIAN CHILDREN. 65 

This institution has an Industrial Department, in which 
some of the boys, not capable of a high education, are 
taught shoe- making, book-binding, weaving, tailoring, and 
printing. 

The wisdom of connecting Industrial Education with the 
higher branches of literature and science, in a country like 
India, will be questioned by many ; and it is possible that 
the Mission will make some change in this respect. 

3. For European and Eurasian Girls. 

Two Boarding Schools of another class must be men- 
tioned, as existing within the bounds of the Lodiana Mis- 
sion, and supported in part by the Board, or by the Ladies' 
Auxiliaries in America, though only one of them has been 
under the exclusive control of this Mission. 

The first of these is the Woodstock School at Landour. 
This school was connected at one time with an English 
Ladies' Society — that for " Promoting Female Education 
in the East." It was established and maintained in the 
interests of Protestantism. After some years however it 
was given up. The Philadelphia Ladies' Society, connected 
with our Board, then stepped in, and bought the property, — 
with the view of accomplishing two objects : first, the 
primary education of Missionaries' daughters ; and second, 
the education, on a sound Protestant basis, of Protestant 
European and Eurasian girls ; who, but for such an insti- 
tution, would be sent to a Eoman Catholic Convent, or to 
a High Church Episcopalian School, where there is almost 
always a tendency towards Rome. 

The building was paid for, partly, by a grant-in-aid 
from the Grovernment : and a monthly grant from the same 
source helps to pay for the education given. 

From the beginning of 1874 to the beginning of 1877, 
it was under the general management of Mr. Herron, 
whose station, Deyrah, was but twelve miles distant from 
Landour,— Miss Bacon, Miss Scott, and Miss Pratt acting 
successively as Principals : but in March, 1877, the prin- 
cipalship, with the entire management, was made over to 
Mrs. Scott, sent out by the Home Society for this purpose. 

The building has recently been enlarged, and the pre- 
mises in every way improved ; yet something in this res- 
pect still remains to be done. 

9 



66 ' THEOLOGICAL KDITATION. 

The imrabcr of Missionary cliildreu in the school, during 
the summer just ended, was about 20 ; while the hoarders 
of all classes counted up to about 80. The number of 
teachers at present, apart from Mrs. Scott, is 7 ; of whom 
5 are young- ladies from America, and 2 from Scotland. 
The good education given here, the excellent management 
of the Principal, the character of the teachers, tlie special 
attention paid to the spiritual interests of the pupils, and 
the Missionary spirit fostered among them, cause the school 
to stand high in the confidence of the Christian public. 

Though the cost of maintaining the institution is neces- 
earily high, it is expected very soon to be self-supporting. 

The other school was begun by Miss Bacon, at Umballa, 
in 1875. It was afterwards removed to Kussowlie, on the 
mountains, for the sake of the better climate found there : 
hence called the KunHotdie School. 

It was intended to meet the wants of a class of Eurasians 
and Europeans who could not well all'ord to pay the higher 
fees of the Woodstock School. The number of pupils never 
rose so high as 30. 

In 1882, on account of Miss Bacon's ill health, which 
neeessitated her return to America, Miss Pratt was appoint- 
ed to take her place. 

At the end of 1883, when the circumstances which led 
to the establishment of tbis school no longer existed, and 
there were openings elsewhere for the class of girls for 
which it was intended, the institution was abolished. 

XIV. — Theological Education. 

Early in the history of the Mission the necessity was 
felt of giving a Theological Education to catechists and 
candidates for the ministry ; and year after year this was 
done by one or other of the Missionaries at most of our 
stations. This method, however, was in itself most unde- 
sirable. It took tho time of many men, (men too who 
were generally full of other work,) to do what could have 
been accomplished easily, and perhaps far better, by one or 
two ; if only tho students had been gathered into classes, 
and the teachers had devoted their whole time, or nearly 
the whole of it, to this partioular work. 

In view of this a Theoio;- ical School was established at 



PRTISBYTERIES AND SYNOD. 67 

Allahabad, under the auspices of the Synod, in the year 
1872, which was intended to meet the wants of both the 
Lodiana and the Furruckabad Missions. For one reason 
or another, however, the enterprise did not prosper ; and 
in the year 1875 it was suspended. 

A new eltort in the same direction was resolved upon at 
the Synodical meeting held at Suharunpore in 1883; and 
Suharunpore was designated as the most suitable place for 
it. Instructors have been appointed, and arrangments are 
now being made to begin the work of instruction.* 

XV. — Presbytkriks and Synod. 

Of the party of missionaries which joined the Mission 
in 1836, three were unordained. They had been sent out 
under the designation of teachers. They had all, however, 
had the ministry in view ; and having gone through a 
regular course of collegiate studies, and obtained the de- 
gree of B. A., they were prepared to prosecute their theo- 
logical studies, under Presbyterial direction. But there 
was no Presbytery in the Mission field ; and, in connection 
with the Greneral Assembly, there was not a sufficient num- 
ber of ministers to form a constitutional Presbytery. 
There were only two ministers, while the constitution re- 
quired three. To meet this emergency it was agreed that 
the two, (viz : Mr. Wilson and myself,) and Mr. Camp- 
bell, one of the party referred to, who was a minister of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, should organize a 
Presbytery, and so be able to give formal ordination to 
the others, whenever the way for such ordination might 
otherwise be opened. Accordingly the Presbytery was 
constituted, and after the usual trials the three candidates 
were ordained. 

The whole thing was of course irregular ; but the anoma- 
lous position the missionaries were placed in seemed to 
them to justify it : and the principle of it has since been 
recognized by the proposed alliance of different Presbyterian 
bodies occupying the same Mission field, for certain eccle- 
siastical purposes. 

* The school was opened in January, 1885; and the number of 
students soon rose to 27. These were taught by two foreign mission- 
aries, Mr. Wherry, transferred from Lodiana, and Mr Ewing, trans- 
ferred from Allahabad : together with some learned native assistants. 



68 PRESBYTERIES AND SYNOD. 

The matter was soon after brought to the notice of the 
General Assembly ; but while tlie Assembly disapproved the 
measure, it gave informal validity to it, by acknowledging 
the three brethren — Jamiesou, Ivogers, and Porter — as truly 
ordained mini^ters. and directing them, with theoriginal two 
in its connection, to constitute the Presbytery of Lodiana. 
This Presbytery in its first form was constituted in 1837. 
Its present form was assumed two or three years later. 

In 18-J8 another minister of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church — the Rev. Joseph Caldwell — joined the Mission : 
and as two ministers, according to the law of that church, 
can form a Presbytery, Messrs. Campbell and Caldwell in 
due time organized the Presbytery of Suharunpore. This 
was in 1841. 

Not far from the same time two Presbyteries of our 
church were organized within the bounds of theFui-ruckabad 
Mission — one, the Furruckabad ; the other, the Allahabad 
Presbytery. 

Hereupon the Greneral Assembly, in 1841, adopted a 
resolution by which the three Presbyteries of Lodiana, 
Allahabad and Furruckabad, were to constitute the Synod 
of Northern India ; and the first meeting of the Synod, so 
constituted, was held at Futtehgurh in November, 1845, 
The second meeting was held at Agra in December, 1848 : 
and then no other for many years. 

In 1868 a portion of the Lodiana Presbytery was de- 
tached, and formed into the l*resbytery of Lahore ; — the 
dividing line between the two Presbyteries being the river 
Sutlej; except that Ferozepore, though south of the Sutlej, was 
for special reasons connected with the Lahore Presbytery. 

After the union of the Old and New School Churches 
the Kolhapore Presbytery was attached to the Synod of 
Northern India, and the name of the Synod was changed, 
by dropping the word Northern, so that the name by 
which it is now known is The Sijnod of India. 

The ministerial members of the Synod at the time of its 
last meeting, held in 1883, numbered 44 ; of whom 15 were 
natives. 

Referring particularly to the Presbyteries within the 
bounds of the Lodiana Mission, it must suffice to say, that 
in the Lodiana Presbytery, at the date mentioned above 
(Nov. 1883) there were 12 ministers ; of whom 5 were 



PRESBYTERIES AND SYNOD. 69 

natives ; while the number of churches, too, was 5. In the 
Lahore Presbytery also there were 12 ministers ; of whom 
6 were natives ; and here too the number of churches was 5, 
In the Suharunpore Presbytery (Reformed,) at the same 
date, there were 5 ministers ; of whom 3 were natives ; and 
there were nominally 3 churches — one of them, the one at 
Hoorkee — being practically defunct. 

During the current year some changes have taken place. 
The three native members of the Suharunpore Presbytery, 
and one of the foreign members, have withdrawn from that 
body, and have been admitted into the Presbytery of Lodi- 
ana ; while the Church at Suharunpore, at its own request, 
has been taken under the care of the same body. A new church 
also has been organized at Deyrah, in connection with the 
Lodiana Presbytery. Meanwhile, however, the Suharun- 
pore (Reformed) Presbytery has ordained another native, 
and installed him as pastor over the Reformed Congrega- 
tion at Deyrah. Still further it should be noted, that 
during this same year the Presbytery of Lahore has dis- 
missed two of its foreign members to the Presbytery of 
Lodiana, while it has received three additional members from 
more remote Presbyteries. At the present time therefore 
the statistics of these three Presbyteries may be written thus : 

Lodiana Presbytery : Churches 7 ; Ministers 20 ; of whom 
8 are natives. 

Lahore Presbytery : Churches 5 ; Ministers 12 ; of whom 
6 are natives. 

Suharunpore Presbytery : Church 1 ; Ministers 2 ; of 
whom 1 is a native. 

This makes altogether, in this Mission, 13 Churches, and 
33 Ministers, of whom 19 are foreigners, and 15 are natives.* 

* The following is a list, in alphabetical order, of the ministerial 
members of these Presbyteries, at the date of the printing of this 
paper, in 1885. The native members are distinguished by Italics. 

Ik the Presbyteky of Lodiana : Ahmed Shah, Q- S. Bergen, 
W. Basten, W. Calderwood, M. M. Carleton, J. B. Dales, Koxoer 
Sain, A. P. Kelso, Mathias, J. M. McOomb, G. McMaster, W. J. 
P. Morrison, 0. B. Newton, E. P. Newton, A. Rudolph, Soonder 
Lai, R. Thaukwell, H. C. Velte. E. M. Wherry, T. W. J. Wylie.— 
In the Presbytery of Lahore : Abdonllah, J. C. Bose, K. C. 
Chatterjee, C. W. Forman, Goloknath, Esa Chwrun, F. J. Newton, 
J. Newton, E. Morrison, J. F. Ullmann. P. C. Ooppel. B. D. Wyc- 
koff.— In the Presbytery of Suharunpore, (Reformed,) D. Her- 
rou, Manoah. 



70 TITE MISSION. 

The first native ordained in connection with the Lodiana 
^[is.siun was Mr. Goloknatli ; who was also the first person 
La})tized by us. He still lives, and labors at the station 
which he occupied, as a missionary, '67 years ago; though, 
being but three years short of three score and ten, he 
begins, as might be expected, to feel tlie infirmities of age.* 

Besides Mr. Golokuath, two or three of our other native 
ministers are so far advanced in life as to be very little re- 
lied on for further service. The Lodiana and the Suha- 
ruupore Presbyteries have each lost one Native Minister 
by death, and the Lahore Presbytery has dismissed one to 
Calcutta. But for these losses, the whole number of our 
native ordained brethren would now be 18. 

XYI.— "The Mission." 

This is the name given to the entire body of Foreign 
Missionaries, within certain territorial limits, considered 
as a committee, under the Board, for the management of 
all missioniiry business, not of an ecclesiastical nature ; 
and for the transaction of business, it holds an 

Annual Meeting, 

sometimes at one station, sometimes at another. Before 
the introduction of railways, it was usual for the mission- 
aries, in going to and from the annual meetings, to travel 
by short stages, so as to have an opportunity of preaching 
and of distributing books and tracts at most of the towns 



♦He was a Kooleen Brahman, and son of a Tea Merchant in 
Calcutta. Like many a young man, he left his home without per- 
mission, and wandered to the north-west, little knowing what was 
to befall him there. Having been a pupil in Dr. Duff's school, not 
only had he acquired a knowledge of Christianity, but his strong 
leaning that way made it difficult for him to remain at home ; and 
by the time he reached Lodiana, which was long after his departure 
from Calcutta, he had fully determined to cast in his lot with Chris- 
tians. He was then 19 years old. He first presented himself at 
the door of the Mission house with a small English Bible in his 
hand, being well-dressed, and having a respectable appearance. 
"When his story was heard, and there was every reason to believe 
tliiit his professions were sincere, a room was given him to live in, 
and pains were taken to make him still better acquainted with Gos- 
pel truth. Hie baptism took place after the lapse of about six 
months. 



THE MISSION. 71 

on the way ; and in order to widen the sphere of work done in 
this way, the direct road was often forsaken, and a circuitous 
route taken instead. A return to this practice, thoug-h invol- 
ving- more ex}ieuse than railway travel, might secure a larger 
amount of itinerant preaching than we have at present. 

Attendance of Ladies. 

One ohjpct of these annual meetings, recognized from the 
beginning, was to increase the mutual acquaintance of the 
members, and thereby create sympathy and promote harmo- 
ny, and stimulate zeal in the work : and with this in view it 
was considered important for the ladies also to attend the 
meetings, — a thing which formerly they always did, when not 
providentially hindered. 

Annual Sermon. 

In order to make the meetings the more profitable, it was 
arranged that a sermon should be j)reached, by some one ap- 
pointed beforehand,whenever the members came thus together. 
The first sermon was preached in 1839, on the words. "Not 
slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." — In 
later years it was determined that, in addition to the sermon, 

A Conference 

should be held on some practical religious topic. The sub- 
jects for the Conference, and generally for the sermon also, 
are appointed at the preceding meeting. 

Station Reports. 

At these annual meetings the Reports of the stations are 
submitted ; though latterly, since the stations have been mul- 
tiplied, and the Reports have become bulky, they are seldom 
read and voted upon ; but are committed, instead, to some one 
or two persons, to prepare from them a Report for the public. 

For the first ten years no Report was printed in this coun- 
try. Year after year, however, contributions were received 
from numerous friends at our several stations, and elsewhere, 
who felt an interest in the Mission ; and it seemed right that 
they should know something about the progress of the work, 
and have their contributions formally acknowledged. This 
led to the publication of the firstReport, which was in the end 
of 1844. The next Report was published three years later ; and 
since then, the Reports given to the public have been annual. 

10 



72 THE MISSION. 

Personal Reports. 

Besides the station reports, which are handed in at every 
meeting, each foreign missionaiy of the Board, whether 
male or female, and each native missionary, is expected to 
hand in a hrief narrative of his personal work during the 
year, and of the Lord's dealings with him personally, 
together with any peculiar views of the work he may have. 
The utility of this, if the narratives are faithful, cannot 
well be doubted. 

The Meeting of 1858. 

The meeting held in November, 1858, was a meeting long 
to be remembered. It was the year after the Mutiny, and 
before the disturbances which agitated the country had 
been fully quelled. It was the year when great commercial 
depression in America cast a gloom over the face of society 
there, and brought Christians to their knees. It was the 
year in which the Fulton Street Prayer meeting was in- 
augurated. It was the year of that great lievival which 
spread from the United States to Great Britain and Ireland, 
and brought multitudes in all these countries into the king- 
dom of Grod; and it was a time of great spiritual refreshment 
to the members of the Mission then assembled at Lodiana. 
From that meeting it was that the invitation went forth to 
Christians of all denominations, throughout the world, to 
unite in supplication, during the second week of January, 
1860, for an out-pouring of the Spirit on all flesh. 

Such an invitation, from so obscure a body, might have 
seemed to be an act of the greatest presumption ; but it was 
in the power of the Spirit that the Mission acted. As a Spirit 
of prayer, He was then working mightily in our little compa- 
ny ; and from the readiness with which the invitation was gene- 
rally accepted, and the blessing which followed that concert 
in prayer, in many lands, widely separated from each other, 
it is clear that the whole movement was of the Lord. This 
union of prayer, during an entire week in January, has been 
kept up, year after year, ever since, on the recommendation of 
the Evangelical Alliance ; and it has transpired, lately, that 
something of the same sort had already been thought of by 
the Alliance, before it was conceived by the Mission. Nei- 
ther knew what the Lord was prompting the other to do. 



THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY STAFF. 73 

Circulars. 

Besides business transacted at the Annual Meetings, 
questions often arise between one meeting and another, 
which demand the immediate consideration and action of 
the whole Mission. Such business is done by circulars, 
issued by the President, — the results being formally an- 
nounced by him in the same way. 

Action of the Mission on the work of Lady Missionaries. 

In the year 1877, a paper was adopted by the Mission on 
the subject of the work of unmarried ladies. The paper 
was an elaborate one, prepared by a Committee of the 
Mission, in response to a letter of the Board, in which a 
question was raised as to how the work of this class of agents 
could be systematized ; the Board, at the same time, asking 
to be kept informed of the necessities of this branch of 
labor. The Report of this Committee recommended, among 
other things, that Lady Missionaries should confer with 
each other, at the time of our Annual meetings, in regard 
to their own particular work ; and report to the Mission 
the results of such conference — so far as any action might be 
required on the part either of the Mission or of the Board. 
The Mission adopted the report by a unanimous vote, but its 
recommendations seem to have been overlooked. There can 
be little doubt that some such conference on the part of the 
ladies would be advantageous to the cause they represent. 

Mission Work in Preshyteries. 

It has been determined recently to transfer as much of 
the Mission work as possible to the Presbyteries ; and some- 
thing has already been done in this way. The Presbytery of 
Lahore, for example, has appointed one of its own members, 
the Rev. Poorun Chund Ooppel, as its first Missionary, and 
the question of his location is now under consideration. 

XVII. — The Foreign Missionary Staff. 

This can best be shown by dividing the whole period of 
fifty years, during which the Mission has been in existence, 
into five decades ; and exhibiting the gains and losses of the 
decades separately, with a final summing up of the whole, — 
all in a tabular form, thus : — 



74 TJIK I'OKKliiN MISSIONARY VlAl'F. 

A 'I\ilnilnr Vine of (til the Fi>rei<nt .]fissi()n((ries — male and female — irho 





AfCKS.sio>-3 DUUiXG Decade. 






Bkoixkinq or Decade. 












Bv 


Death. 


Men. 


Women. 


Mea. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 










J. C. Lowrie 


Mrs. T.owrio 




Mrs. Lowrio 








,W. Heed 


Mrs. Reed 


W. Reed. 










iJas. Wilson 


Mi-s Wilson 












IJ. Newton 


-Mrs. Newton 








^ 






Miss Uavis 








X 




J.R.Campbell 


Mrs. Campbell 






1 


o 




;J.M. Jamieson 


Mrs. .Tiimieson 






i 






W. Rogers 


Mrs. Rogers 












J. Porter 


Mrn. Porter 




Mrs. Porter 


2 








Jas. Craig 


Mrs. Craig 






£ 


s 

2 






J. Caldwell 
R. Morris 
L. Janvier 
Dr. W. Green. 


Mrs. Caldwell 
Mrs. Morris 
Mrs. Janvier 
Mrs. Caldwell (2d). 




Mrs. Caldwell. 










13 


U 


1 


3 






J. XewtoQ 


1 
Mrs. Newton jA. Ruilolph 


Mrs. Rudolph (2d) 


J. Craig 


Mrs. .lamieson 






J. R Campbell 


Mrs. Canipliell 


C. W. Forman 


Mrs. Rudolph (3d) 




Mrs Rudolph (2d) 




Tj: J. M. Jamieson 


.Mrs. Jamiosou 


J. II. Moirison 


Mrs. Morrison (.'id) 






» 00 J. Porter 




J.S. Woodside 


Mrs. Woodside 


J. Porter. 




•g -: J. Craig 


Mrs. Craig 


J. H. Orbison. 


Mrs. Orbi^'on 






g 2 J. Caldwell 


Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 




Mrs. Jamieson (2d) 






Q 2 L. Janvier. 

.w 00 1 


Mrs. Janvier. 




Mrs. Porter (2d). 




Mrs. Janvier. 


i:s 






























7 


e 


5 


' 


2 


3 




J. Newton 


Mrs. Newton R. Jlnnnis 


Mrs. Munnis 


L. Janvier 


Mrs. Newton 




J. K. Campbell 


Mrs. Campbell R K. FiiUerton 


Mrs. Fiillerton 


J.R.Campliell 


.Mrs. Morrison (.3dl 
Mrs. Jamieson (2d) 




J. M. Jaiiiii'S<jii 


Mrs. Jamieson (2d) ;R. Tliackwell 


Mrs. Tli.ickwell 


I.Loewenthal 




J. Caldwell 


Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 


E. Leavitt 


Mrs. Tliaekwell(2d) 




Mrs. Thaekwell 




L. Janvier 


Mrs Porter (2d) 




Mrs. Leavitt 




Mrs. Orbison 




A. Rudolph 


Mrs. Rudolph (3d) 


J. Newton, MD 


Mrs. Dr. Newton 




Mrs. Cakierwood 




^ C. \V. Forman 




G. O. Barnes 


Mrs. Barnes 




Mrs. Herron (2d). 


• 


-^ 






Miss M.A. Campbel' 






•e 


2 J. H. Morrison 


Mrs. Morrison (3d) 




Mrs. Orbison (2d) 






€ 


£ J. S. Woodsidii 


.Mrs. Woodside 


W. Cnlderwood. 


Mrs. Calderwood 






0/ 


- J. H. Orbison. 


.Mrs. Orbison. 


I. Loewtnthal 


Mrs.Caldorwood(2dJ 








-2 




1). Herniii 


Mrs. Hei ron (2d) 






_c 


■"* 




[M..M.CarIetou 


Mrs. Carleton 








1 




;A. Henry. 


Mrs. Henry 












Mrs Jamieson 








it 








Miss M. Newton 
(afterwarduMrs. 
Forman i 
















Miss C. L. Bcatty. 








_ 


10 9 


11 


17 


r. 


7 







IHK FOKKIGN MliSSlONAKY STAFF. 




75 


have been connected loith the Lod'iana Mission 


during these 


fifti/ years. 


LOSSES. 










Remaining at the knd or tiik 
Decade. 






By Withdrawal. 


By Transfer. 






Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


J. C. Lowrie 


Mrs. Reed 


Jas. Wilson. 


Mrs. Wilson 
Miss Davis. 


J. Newton 

J. R. Campbell 
J. M. Janiieson 




Mrs. Newton 

Mrs. Campbell 
Mrs. Janiieson 


W. Rogers 


Mrs. Rogers 






J. Porter 












J. Craig 




Mrs. Craig 










J. Caldsvell 




Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 


iB. Morris 


Mrs. Morris. 






L. Janvier. 




Mrs. Janvier. 


Dr. Green. 






2 








4 


3 


1 


7 


6 




« 






J. jS'evvton 
J. R. Campbell 
J. M. Jamieson 
J. Caldwell 




Mrs. Newton 
Mrs. CaiTipbell 
Mrs. Jamieson (2d) 
Mrs. Caldwell (Sd) 




Mrs. Craig 






L. Janvier 




Mrs. Porter (2d) 








A. Hudnlph 




Mrs. Rudolph > 3d) 










C. W. Forman 














J. H. Miirrison 




Mrs. Morrison (3d) 










J. S. Woodside 




Mrs. Woodside 










J. H. Orbison. 




Mrs. Orbison. 




1 






10 




9 


R. Munni<> 


Mrs. Miinnis 






J. Newton 




Mrs. Campbell 


J.if . Jamipson Miss -Janiieson 






J. Caldwell 




Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 


G. O. Barnes |Mrs. Barnes 






A. Rudolph 




Mrs. Rudolph (.M) 


E. Leavitt. 


Mrs. Leavitt 








\ 


Mrs. Porter (2d) 




Miss Campbell. 








now Mrs. Janvier (2d) 










J. S. Woodside 




Mrs. W oodside 










J. H. Orbison 




Mrs. Orbison (2d) 










R. S. Pullerton 




Mrs. Fnllerton 










R. Thackwell 




IMis. Thackwell (2d) 










J. Newton MD 




Mrs. Dr. N«wton 










W. Calderwood 




Mrs. Calderwood (2d) 










D. Herron 




Miss Beattv 










M. M. Carleton 




Mrs. Carleton 










A. Henry 




Mrs. Henry 










C.W. Forman. 




Mrs. Fonnan. 


i 


5 






14 




14 

















76 



THE FOKEION .MISSIONARY STAKF. 

A Talntlar View of all the Foreiqn 



"BzaivrmnQ of Decade. 



Men. 



Women. 



Accessions durino Decade. 



Men. 



J. Newtou 
J.CaMwell 
A. liudolph 
C. W. Forman 

J. H. Morrison 

J. S. Woodside 

J. H. Orbison 

K. 8. Fulierton 

^ K. Thackwell 

« J. Newton, .MD 

_ ,^\^ Calderwood 

Sj:2 P. Herrnn 

fii^ M.M. Carleton 

.c s, A. Henry. 



Mrs. CamphcU 
Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 
Mis. Kudolph (3d( 
Mrs. Forman 

Mrs. J.invior (2d) 
■Mrs. Woodside 
Mrs. Orliisoii (2d) 
Mrs. Fulierton 
Mrs. Thackwell (2d) 
Mrs. Dr. Neuton 
Mrs.Ciildcrwood(2d) 
Miss Beatfy 
Mrs. Carleton 
Mrs. Henry. 



J. Newton 
.J. Caldwell 
A Kudoli.h 
0. W. Forman 

J. H. Morri<:on 
J. 8. Woodside 
R. ThaoUwell 
'j. Newton, MD 
W. Calderwood 
5' D. Horron 
X M. M Carleton 
c G. 8. BerKen 
•" |Wm. Morrison 
,~ |C. B. Newton 

E. M. Wherry 
A. P. Kelso 

F. J. Newton 
E. P. Newton. 



Mrs. Newton (2d) 
Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 
Mrs. Rudolph (.3d) 
iMrs. Forman 

Mrs. Morrison (4th) 
JMrs. Woodside 
(Mrs. Janvier (2d) 
Mrs. Dr. Newton 
M i-s . Ca Ider w ood (2d) 
Mrs. Myers 
Mrs. Carleton 
Mi-s. Bergen 
Miss H. Morrison 
Mrs. C. B. Newton 
Mrs. Wherry 
Mrs. Kelso" 
Mrs. F.J. Newton 
Miss 8. Morrison 

(Mrs. Thackwell) 
Miss Thiede 
Miss Bacon 
Miss Prait 
Miss Craig 
Miss Woodside 
Miss Nelson 
Miss Campbell. 



25 



J. H. Myers 
G. 8. Bergen 
W.J.P Moirison 
C. B. Newton 

E. M. Wherry 
A. P. Kelso 
J.F. Holcomb 

F. J. Newton 
E. P. Newton. 



Women. 



Bt Death. 



Men. 



Women. 



J. F. Ullmann 
B. D. Wvekotr 
M.B. Carleton, MO 
C.W. Forman, MD 

J.M. McComb 
H. C. Velte 
R. Morrison. 



Nfrs. Myers A. Henry iMiss Beatty 

Mrs. Bergen |J. H. Mvers Mrs. Campholl 

Mrs. Newton (2d) ;j.H. Orbison MrsThackwelUSd) 
Miss MB Thompson B.S.Fullerton.'Mrs. Herron (3d). 

(.Vlrs.C. B.Newton) 
Mrs. Wherry 
.\Ii.<s H Morrison 
Mrs. Holcomb 
Mrs. F. J. No.vton 
Miss 8. Morrison 
Mrs Herron i3d) 
Mrs. Kelso 
Mrs. Morrison (4th) 
Miss Bacon 
Miss Pratt 
Miss Craig 
Miss ^\ oodside 
Miss Thiede 
Miss Nelson 
Miss L. Campbell 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Miss 
(M 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Miv:s 
Mi-s. 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Mrs. 



E.'P. Newton 
Wyekoff 
Amy Campbell 
Thackwell 
rs. W.Morrison) 
McComb 
Wherry 
Herron 
Carleton (2d) 
(Jiven 
Dow ns 
(reisinger 
Pendleton 
Forniun (2d), 



Dr. Newton 
J.H.Morrison 
J. Caldwell 



Mrs. Forman 
Mrs. Carleton 
Mrs. Rudolph (3d). 



Total accessions in the .'> Decades, 4.j men and 70 women : altogether ll-' 



THK FORKIGN MISSIONARY STAFF, 

Missionaries — male and female— ^'c, — concluded. 



77 



LOSSES. 


Remaining at the end of thb 
Decade. 


By Withdrawal. 


By Transfer. 


Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 




Mrs. Henry 


J.F. Holcomb 


Mrs. Holcomb 


J. Newton 


Mrs. Newton (2d) 




Mrs. Orbisoa (2d) 






J. Caldwell 


Mrs. Caldwell (2d) 




Mrs. FuUerton. 






A. Rudolph 

C. W. Forman 

J. H. Morrison 
J. S. Woodside 
R. Thackwell 
J Newton, MD 
W. Calderwood 

D. Herron 

M. M. Carleton 
G. S. Bergen 
Wm. Morrison 
C. B. Newton 

E. M. Wherry 
A. P. Kelso 

F. J. Newton 
E. P. Newton. 


Mrs. Rudolph (3d) 
Mrs. Forman 

Mrs. Morrison (4th) 
Mrs. Woodside 
Mrs. Janvier, (2d) 
Mrs. Dr. Newton 
Mrs. Calderwood (2d) 
Mrs. Myers 
Mrs. Carleton 
Mrs. Bergen 
Miss H. Morrison 
Mrs. C. B. Newton 
Mrs. Wherry 
Mrs. Kelso 
Mrs. F. J. Newton 
Miss R. Morrison 
Miss Thiede 
Miss B icon 
Miss Pratt 
Miss Craig 
Miss Woodside 
Miss Nelson 












Miss D. Campbell. 




3 


1 


1 


18 


25 


1 

iMrs. Caldwell 


J. Woodside. 


Mrs. Woodside 


J. Newton 


Mrs. Newton (2d) 
Mrs. Morrison (4th) 


Mrs. Janvier 


IMiss Woodside. 


A. Rudolph 


Mrs. Myers 






C. W. Forman 


Mrs. Forman (2d) 
Mrs. Thackwell (3d) 




Mrs. Dr. Newton 






R. Thackwell 




Miss Campbell 






W. Calderwood 


Mrs. Calderwood (2d) 
Miss Craig 




MissAmyCampbell 






D. Herron 




Miss Morrison 






M. M. Carleton 


Mrs. Carleton (2d) 
Mrs. Bergen 




Miss Nelson 






G. 8. Bergen 




Miss Bacon. 






Wm. Morrison 
C. B. Newton 

E. M. Wherry 

A. P. Kelso 

F. J. Newton 
E. P. Newton 
J. P. Ullmann 

B. D. WyckoflE 
Dr. Carleton 
Dr. Forman 

J. M. McComb 
H. C. Velte 
R. Morrison. 


Mrs. W. Morrison 
Mrs. C. B. Newton 
Mrs. Wherry 
Mrs. Kelso 
Mrs. F. J. Newton 
Mrs. E. P. Newton 
Miss Geisinger 
Mrs. Wyckoff 
Miss Given 
Miss Downs 
Mrs. McComb 
Miss Pendleton 
Miss Herron 
Miss Pratt 
Miss Thiede 
Miss Wherry. 




9 


1 


2 


21 


24 



Total remaining at the end of the 50 years, 21 men and 24 women : altogether 45. 



78 





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a 














Balanc 

of 
Gain 




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MISSION SANITARIA. 79 

For the better appreciation of tlie facts set forth in these 
tables, a few remarks are required. 

1. These tables do not include the five missionaries sent 
out by the Board for the Woodstock School at Landour, 
because that institution, thoug-h doing a good work for the 
Master, by educating the daughters of our missionaries and 
others, is not directly conuected with the Lodiana Mission. 

2. Of the 115 persons, (45 men and 70 women,) who 
during these fifty years have been members of the Mission, 
as having been appointed, or at least recognized, by the 
Board, some never reached the field, — notably three of 
the first party, viz. Mrs. Lowrie, who died in Calcutta short- 
ly after landing, and Mr. and Mrs. Eeed, who were obliged, 
under medical advice, speedily to re-embark for America ; — 
the former however, only to be buried in the Bay of Ben- 
gal : also Miss Davis, who was married, before leaving Cal- 
cutta, to the Rev. Mr. Groadby, an English Baptist mission- 
ary, of Orissa. Others remained so short a time in the 
Mission, that they can scarcely be said to have begun the 
work ; such as Dr. Grreen, Mr. and Mrs. Leavitt, and Miss 
Jamieson ; all of whom retired shortly after joining the 
Mission ; also Mr. and Mrs. Holcomb, who were early 
transferred to the Furruckabad Mission. Again, many of 
the ladies have been hindered, by delicate health or domes- 
tic cares, from doing full missionary work. 

3. Most of those who have long retained their connec- 
tion with the mission, have been obliged sometimes to leave 
the work for a season, with a view of recruiting their health 
and strength. 

4. A fact which ought perhaps to be mentioned is, that 
20, out of the 115 mentioned in the table, were children of 
missionaries. 

5. Of the 70 ladies named as members of the Mission, 
23 entered it as single ladies ; but 7 of these were after- 
wards married in India, — 4 of them in the Mission, thereby 
retaining their connection with the Board ; and 3 of them 
outside of the Mission. 

XVIII. — Mission Sanharia. 

Acute diseases are no more common in India than in 
cooler climates, though there is a greater tendency to cer- 



80 FAVOUB SHOWN TO THE MISSION. 

tain kinds of disease. — Moreover, no acclimatizing pro- 
cess is needed for new comers ; but the intense heat of the 
summer season is very debilitating-. This is felt more or 
less by all foreigners coming from a temperate zone ; espe- 
cially by ladies. It is for this reason, no doubt, that the 
mortality of women in our Mission has been greater than 
that of men. The children of foreigners too, if brought 
up on the plains, are almost sure to have weak constitu- 
tions. All this is emphatically true of North India, where 
the summer heat is much greater than it is in the iSouth; 
though the winters are colder and of longer duration. 

It was not long therefore, after the founding of the Mis- 
sion, that the goodness of God was seen in providing such 
a retreat for invalids as is afforded by the great chain of 
mountains which borders our Mission field. In less than a 
year from the time our first missionary arrived at Lodiana, 
he was obliged to go to Simla for the benefit of his health. 
And 3'ear after year it has been found necessary for one and 
another to seek a similar change. Many who are not abso- 
lutely ill become so worn out, by labouring through several 
months of excessive heat, that rest for a few weeks in the 
Hills, if not altogether necessary, is found, nevertheless, to 
be very beneficial. This fact is fully recognized by the 
Government ; which gives each of its servants the privilege 
of resting and recuperating one month every year. More 
than this, however, is required by invalids, and by the wives 
of missionaries who have the care of delicate little children. 
These often need to spend the whole summer in the hills. 
But house-rent at the hill stations is very high. On this 
account, it has been the policy of our Mission to own as 
many houses at the several hill stations as are necessary to 
meet its wants. At the present time, therefore, there are 
Mission Houses at several of the Hill Sanitaria : viz : at 
Murree, Kussowlie, and Landour. Occasionally, when 
these are not needed by members of the Mission, they are 
let, and the rent is used for keeping them in repair. 

XIX. — Favour shown to the Mission. 

1. — By the Government. 

From the very beginning, officers of Government, gene- 
rally, have done every thing in their power to facilitate 



FAVOUR SHOWN TO THE MISSION. 81 

the work of the Mission. A few facts may be mentioned 
to illustrate this. 

Before Mr. Lowrie left Calcutta, the Grovernor Greneral, 
Lord Wm. Bentinck, expressly approved his establishing 
a Mission jit Lodiana. The British Political Agent at 
Lodiana, Capt. Wade, procured land on which to build 
the Mission houses, and afterwards another lot, close to the 
city, on which to build a Christian village, exempt from 
Grovernment taxation, and liable to pay only the small rent 
claimed by the native land owners. After this, from time 
to time, five separate grants were made, of sites, in the city 
and cantonment, for school houses and chapels : for none of 
which was any rent or tax to be paid. 

Similar advantages were obtained through the friendly 
spirit of the Civil officers at Suharunpore and at JuUunder. 

When Lahore was taken up as a Mission station, the 
first act of kindness shown by the Government was to give 
the missionaries the use of one of the most desirable houses 
in the city, which happened to be Grovernment property, 
for the nominal rent of five rupees a month : and afterwards 
the use of another good house, outside the city, free of rent 
altogether. They gave also the site on which the Mission 
Dispensary stands, the site for a school house inside the 
city,* and part of the lot on which the Mission dwelling 
houses are built — the other part being rented of a zemin- 
dar ; which however is not exempt from the payment of a 
Municipal tax. They gave, still further, the lot on which 
the Christian Grirls School stands. Besides all this, they 
let to the Mission, at a nominal rent, part of the premises 
in the city used for the High School — the other part having 
been bought at a very moderate price. 

One other fact may suffice. All the houses at Subathoo, 
and all suitable sites for houses, are within the limits of 
a Military Cantonment : and it is a law of the Military 
Department of Grovernment that a non-military resident 
in a cantonment shall give up his house, whenever it is 
required by an officer, or for any military purpose. The 
Mission house at Subathoo was so required in 1846. The 
Missionary was obliged in consequence to retire from the 
station ; but on his representing to the Grovernor General the 

* Within the last few years similar favour has beeu shown to 
Miss Thiede, of the Lahore Mission. 



82 FAVOUR SHOWN TO THE MISSION. 

inconvenience the Mission was thus put to, an order was at 
once issued to the elt'eot that the Missionary at Subathoo 
should be allowed to occupy a house in the Cantonment 
there, exempt from the operation of the law which makes 
ejection possible, at any time when the wants of an oificer 
happen to demand it. 

A fact of another sort might perhaps be mentioned in 
this connection. When Mission property, and the property 
of persons connected with the Mission at Lodiana, was 
destroyed by the mutineers of J 857, and their sympathizers, 
to the value of about Es. 50,000, the Local Government 
caused the whole to be refunded. 

2. — By Influential members of Society. 

There is probably not a station in our Mission, and perhaps 
not a single missionary, that has not experienced the friend- 
ship and kindness of both Europeans and influential natives ; 
especially the former ; though in some cases the friendship 
of the latter too has been very marked. For example, a 
native builder at Lahore, named Sooltan, erected a building 
for the Mission at a cost of Rs. 1,200, while yet he took 
from the Mission only Rs. 800. And similar generosity 
was shown by his brother to the Mission at llawul Piudee. 

The Jullunder District Gazetteer says, " It is a noteworthy 
fact that during the turbulent and terrible days of 1857, 
"when Christians were hunted out like dogs, to be brutally 
murdered, the native Christians of Jullunder, with their 
pastor, kept to tlieir homes, fully confident that they would 
never be molested by the Jullunder people. Moreover, on 
that never to be forgotten night, when the native army 
stationed at Jullunder broke out, ready asylums were offered 
by their brother citizens, to guard them against the ruth- 
lessness of some stray troopers, who were prowling about 
in quest of plunder and information as regards the hiding 
places of Christians and Englishmen. The safety of the 
Native Christians was further secured by the presence of 
the late Maharajah Rundheer Singh, the [? a] patron and 
friend of the Jullunder Mission." 

It may be mentioned also that when the mutineers were 
devastating the Mission premises at Lodiana, the Native 
Christians found a refuge on the inclosed premises of an 
Afghan prince living near them. 



FAVOUR SHOWN TO THE MISSION. 83 

It cannot be said, however, that hostility has never been 
shown, for there has been bitter and persistent opposition to 
the work on the part of many natives — especially Mahoni- 
medau Moulavies, and Govei'nment-educated young- men ; 
and in a few cases Englishmen also have been unfriendly ; 
but these are exceptions to the rule. 

The feeling of Englishmen towards us and our work 
has been shown particularly by their pecuniary contribu- 
tions, from year to year ; also by what has been contribu- 
ted in times of special need. For example, on several 
occasions the widows of our deceased missionaries have 
been partially, yet generously, provided for by the British 
public in this part of India ; and at the time of the American 
civil war, when our remittances from home became preca- 
rious, some thousands of rupees were raised by our European 
friends to meet the emergency. This was done at the 
spontaneous suggestion of JSir Robert Montgomery, then 
Governor of the Punjab. 

The whole amount contributed directly to our Mission, 
chiefly by people living in India, during the 49 years 
ending with December 1883, was about lis. 470,000. 

"We take the more pleasure in referring to the kind feel- 
ing shown by our English friends, because, in many cases, 
it has been prompted manifestly by the very fact that we 
were Americans. 

3. — By Societies and Missions of other Denominations. 

For the first 18 years, the only missionary at work in 
this field, outside of our own Mission, was a representative 
of the English Baptist Missionary Society, stationed at 
Delhi ; which then was not counted as belonging to the 
Punjab. In 1852 the English Church Missionary Society 
took up a station at Umritsur — 32 miles from Lahore, and 
since then it has extended its work to many parts of the 
Punjab. This was followed by other Societies and Church- 
es : so that the different Missionary Bodies now at work in 
the Punjab, besides ours, are the Church Missionary Socie- 
ty, — the Society for the Propagation of the Grospel, — the 
English Baptist Missionary Society, — the Established 
Church of Scotland, — the American United Presbyterian 
Church, — the United Brethren of Germany,— the Society 
for Promoting Female Education in the East,— the Indian 



84 ENGLISH PREACHING. 

Female Normal Scliool and Instruction Society, — the Church 
ot" England Zenana Mission, —the Ciiuroh oi' England 
Village Mission, — the Christian Vernacular Education 
Society, — and the American Metliodist Mission. The last 
mentioned, indeed, being occupied mainly with English 
congregations, has thus fur done very little direct work 
among the natives. 

With several of these Missions we have had little or no 
direct contact, because their stations are distant from ours: 
but whatever external relations have subsisted between us, 
they are altogether friendly. This is emphatically true 
of those we have had most to do with. Naturally it would 
be expected that if a want of harmony prevailed anywhere, 
it would be between us and Missions of the Episcopal order ; 
but we have had no more cordial fellow-labourers than the 
missionaries of the C. M. S. — an experience which has now 
lasted fur more than 30 years : and as a mark of the good 
will and cordiality of that Society, it may be mentioned, 
that on one occasion, before the practice of selling books 
came into vogue, it sent us, direct from London, a cheque 
for £201), in acknowledgment of the liberality with which 
we had supplied their Missionaries with books and tracts 
for distribution : and on several occasions members of our 
Mission liave been consulted by the Committee and Secre- 
taries of that Society, in regard to certain things connected 
with their work in India, — once at least by letter, and two 
or three times in tlieir Kooms in London, at interviews 
invited by themselves. And it should be especially men- 
tioned, that the Cnurch of England Bishop of Lahore. Dr. 
French, whose diocese extends all over the I'uniab and 
Sindh, has always shown as much personal sympathy with 
us, as if there were no denominational lines to separate us 
from each other. 

XX.— English Preaching. 

Preaching to congregations of Europeans and Eurasians, 
has been practised more or less at almost all our stations. 
It was begun at Lodiana, in the first year of the Mission; 
but from time to time it has been intermitted. At the 
present time the members of our Mission there have no 
English service. 



ENGLISH PREACHING. 85 

The Missionaries at Rawul Pindee have generally had one 
Eng-lish service on Sunday, held sometimes in the Mission 
Church, and sometimes in the Soldierie' " Prayer Room." 

The Missionaries at Lahore have preached in English, 
once, twice, or even three times, in the week, according to 
circumstances. These services were first held in the Soldiers' 
"Prayer Room ;" then, in what is called the Union Church ; 
and often, of late, in a Presbyterian Chapel in the Canton- 
ment. The Lahore Missionaries are joint trustees of the 
Union Church building, and the sole trustees of the 
Cantonment Chapel. 

The Missionary at Ferozepore preaches in English, in the 
Soldiers' Prayer Room, once every Sunday. 

Mr. Chatterjee does the same at Hoshyarpore, but his 
services are held in the English Episcopal Church, there 
being no Chaplain to conduct the service, except two or 
three times in the year, when the Chaplain of JuUunder goes 
over for that purpose. Mr. Chatterjee is allowed by the 
Bishop to preach in the Church, in consideration of his 
using the liturgy of the Church of England. 

The Missionaries at Umballa preach regularly in the 
Presbyterian Church of the Cantonment. This is mainly 
for the benefit of the soldiers ; as indeed the services are in 
some of the other places mentioned. 

The same is true at Subathoo, where there is a Presbyterian 
Church building in immediate charge of the Missionary. 

At Suharunpore and Deyrah there are English services 
every Sunday, in the Mission churches there, conducted by 
the Missionaries. 

In addition to all this, members of the Mission, having 
occasion to spend a few months at some of the Hill Sanitaria, 
have thought it their duty, when strong enough, to accept 
invitations to preach in the Presbyterian andUnion Churches 
there. This is particularly true of Murree and Kussowlie, 
when the churches are Presbyterian. The Union Churches 
of Simla and Mussoorie have had less need to look to our 
Mission for ministerial help. 

It should be mentioned that whenever British soldiers 
constitute any part of the congregations to which we minister, 
a pecuniary allowance is made by Grovernment, and this is 
credited to the Mission Local Fund. 
. It has been doubted sometimes whether it was right for 



86 ENGLISH PREACHING. 

Missionaries to give any part of their time to English 
jn-oaehing ; but for several reasons it is almost the unanimous 
opinion of the Mission, that within certain limits it is 
right. (1) Though our specific work is the evangelization 
of the natives, yet when it is seen that the unchristian lives 
of many Europeans and Eurasians constitute a stumbling 
block to the iiuathen, it is plain that ell'urts made for 
their conversion must be subsidiary to the conversion of 
the Heathen themselves. (2) I'reaching to European 
Christians interests them in our Missionary work. To this 
must be attributed in some measure the large contributions 
we receive in this country, to supplement what is furnished 
by the lioard. (3) It seems to promote Christian fellow- 
ship between ourselves and European Christians, some of 
whom are found at all our stations ; and such fellowship 
and sympathy is likely to be undervalued only by those 
who have never been debarred from the privileges and 
enjoyments of Christian society. (4) To the Missionary, 
whose preaching to the Heathen is often little more than a 
stormy debate, preaching to a congregation which accepts 
the Bible as the Word of God, and many of whom can 
appreciate and relish its precious truths, is a means of 
spiritual comfort and edification not be despised. To some 
extent this same advantage is experienced by one who 
ministers to a native Christian congregation ; but many 
missionaries are not able to speak with the same freedom 
and fulness of thought in the language of the natives, as 
in their mother tongue ; and besides this, native Christians, 
more than Europeans, need to be fed with the milk rather 
than the strong meat of the word. (5) The time required 
for these English services need be little more than the two 
hours of the iSabbath spent in going to and from the place 
of preaching, and in conducting the service ; for no great 
prejjaratiou is needed, in ordinary cases, except the daily 
study of the Scriptures, which every missionary needs for 
his own growth in grace. This is particularly true of 
those who, in addition to facility of extemporaneous 
address, have their minds well stored with Biblical know- 
ledge. 

But, as intimated above, there should be a limit fixed for 
this kind of work. There is danger of one's becoming so 
much absorbed by it, as to feel more interest iu this than in 



THE NUMBER AND VALUE OF MISSION BUILDINGS. 87 

direct Missionary work. When this is found to be the 
case, it is time to draw back ; for the Missionary who feels a 
subordinate interest in the spiritual welfare of the natives, 
has evidently lost sight of the work for which he waa 
specially sent to India, and for which the Board supports 
him here. Nothing should be allowed to interfere per- 
manently with the great object which led us to become 
Missionaries to the Heathen. 

XXI. — The number and value of Mission Buildings. 

The Board has always deemed it economical to build or 
buy the houses needed for Missionary purposes, rather than 
to rent them. To rent, indeed, would in many cases be 
altogether impracticable. Very few, therefore, of the build- 
ings now in use by the Mission are not the property of the 
Board. 

As nearly as can be made out, from information received 
from those members of the Mission who are most con- 
versant with the facts, this property may be set down as 
follows : — 

1. — Raioul Pindee. 

The principal houses here are — 

2 Dwelling Houses for Missionaries, with out- offices ; 
A cottage, which might be called a Gruest House ; 
5 Dwelling Houses for Catechists and Christian 
Teachers ; 

2 School Houses ; 
A Mission Church ;^ 
A Chapel. 

The value of all these is put down by Mr. Thackwell at 
Es. 72,000. 

2. — Lahore. 

The Board's property here consists of — 

5 Dwelling Houses for Missionaries, with out-offices ; 
12 Dwelling Houses for Teachers, Catechists, Bible 

Women, &c.; 
A Barrack (in part) for Students ; 

3 School Houses ; used also as Chapels ; 
A Mission Church ; 

A Dispensary ; used also as a Chapel. 
12 



88 THE NUMHKR AND VALUB OF MISSION HIJILDINGS, 

Estimated by the Missionarios there at lis. 50,000. 

Note. This does not iuclude the (iovcrnmeut share in 
one of the school-houses, and the students' barrack. 

3. — Jullunder. 

We have here — 

1 Mission House, with out-offices ; 

1 School House ; used also as a Church ; 

5 Houses — for Teachers and other Assistants; 

A City Chapel ; 

A Poor-House, &c. 
Valued by Mr. Goloknath at about Rs. 15,000. 

4. — Hoshyarpore, and Sub-station — Ghoratcaha. 

(1) At Hoshyarpore, 

A Dwelling: House for the Missionary, with out-oflBces ; 
A Dwelling House for an Assistant ; 
A Chapel. 

(2) At Ghorawaha, 
A Church. 

A Dwelling House for the Pastor. 
Mr. Chatteriee's estimate of these is — for (1) Us. 9,000 ; 
for (2) Rs. 3,000,— making a total of Rs. 12,000. 

5. — Ferozepore. 

Up to ihis time the Board has no property at this station. 

^. — Lodiana. 

The houses at this station are — 

4 Dwelling Houses for Missionaries, with out-offices ; 

A PrintingOffice,Biudery, Type Foundry & Depository; 

A Christian Boys Boarding School (3 buildings) ; 

A House in the city for the High School ; 

A Church, and 2 City Chapels ; 

Some Houses in the Christian Village; 

Dwelling Houses for Assistants at sub-stations. 
Altogether, with Press furniture, estimated by Mr. 
Wherry at Rs. 120,000. 

7. — Subathoo. 

The property here consists of — 

A Dwelling House for the Missionary, with out-offices; 



THB NUMBER AND VALUK OF MISSION BUILDINGS. 89 

A Chapel ; 

A School House ; 

A House for an Assistant. 
Mr. Rudolph estimates the whole at Rs. 9,000. 

Note. This does not include the several houses which 
compose the Leper Asylum ; which, though standing partly, 
on the Mission premises, were built with funds contributed 
for this special object ; and so, can hardly be regarded as 
the property of the Board. 

8. — Uinballa ; including the Cantonment Sub*station. 

(1) Umballa City— 

2 Dwelling Houses for Missionaries, with out-offices ; 
4 Dwelling Houses for Catechists, &c. ; 
1 School House ; 
1 Church. 

(2) Umballa Cantonment — 

1 Dwelling House for Native Pastor ; '' 

Dwelling Houses for Catechists, &c. ; 
School Buildings ; 
1 Church. 
The estimate put on these by Mr, Velte and Mr. Morrison 
is (1) Rs. 27,500, (2) 14,000 ; making a total of Rs. 41,500. 

9. — Suharunpore. 

The houses here are — 

8 Dwelling Houses for Missionaries, with out-offices ; 
1 Dwelling House for Head-master ; 
A Church ; 

Orphanage Buildings ; 
City School Buildings. 
These are estimated by Mr. Calderwood at Rs. 49,000. 

10. — Dexjrah. 

The buildings at this station are — 

A Mission Dwelling house (nearly finished) ; with out- 
offices ; 
The Christian Girls Boarding School Buildings : 
The Church ; 

The City School House, and School House at Rajpore. 

These are estimated by Mr. Herron at Rs. 100,000; 

which does not include the sum given by the Government, 



90 THE OUTLOOK. 

as a grant-in-aid towards the building of the Boarding 
School, — a grant which gives the Government a lien on 
the property, in the event of its being diverted from educa- 
tional purposes. 

According to these estimates the entire value of the 
Board's house property at our several stations is lis. 468,000. 

To this we must add the value of our Mission houses at 
the Hill Sanitaria, — say Rs. 6;i,000 ; or, if the Board's 
interest in Woodstock, estimated at Rs. 50,000, be added, 
the whole of the Hill property, not including what belongs to 
the Furruckabad Mission, may be put down at lis. 11'3,000. 
This makes the total value of the Board's house property 
in the Lodiana Mission to be lis. 581,500. 

Mr. Calderwood would add lis. 55,500 for the land held 
by the Mission at Suharunpore, outside the Mission pre- 
mises, the value of which is greatly enhanced by the trees 
standing on it. At the other stations no estimate has been 
given of the value of Mission lauds : but it could not be 
very much, at the most. 

It should be remarked that much of this property has 
cost the Board very little. For example : out of the 
B.S. 50,000 at Lahore, the Board paid only lis. 3,600 ; out 
of the lis. 12,000 at Hoshyarpore, the Board paid only 
lis. 3,500 ; out of the lis. 72,000 at liawul Pindee, Mr. 
Thackwell says the Board could not have paid more than 
lis. 15,000 ; while of the lis. 63,000, at which the houses 
at the Hill Sanitaria are estimated, not more than od« 
eixth came from the Board's treasury. 

XXII.— The Outlook. 

While 16 out of the 32 Civil districts of the Punjab are 
occupied by other Societies, 7 districts, containing a popu- 
lation of 5,660,00i>, depend for evangelization, almost en- 
tirely, on our Mission, in conjunction with the English 
Ladies' Societies which co-operate with us, at Lodiana, 
Jullunder, and Lahore. On the eastern side of the Jumna, 
the population depending on us for the word of life 
amounts to 1,860,000. Altogether therefore the number of 
Bouls to whom our Mission is bound specially to preach the 
Gospel is about 7,000,000. 



THE OUTLOOK. 91 

But what prospect is there of the conversion of these ? 
or even of a considerable portion of them 'i If we knew 
the eternal purposes of dod's grace, we might answer 
BUch a question ; but these are hidden from us ; for it was 
never intended that our duty should be regulated by them. 
It is enough to know that we are commanded to preach 
the Gospel to every creature, and tbat an open door is 
Bet before us. We do know tbat God is gathering out 
of the nations a people for himself, and that he is doing 
this through human instrumentulity. But how many of 
this generation, or of any other generation, will be thus 
gathered, cannot be foreseen. Is there room then for 
expanded hopes ? 

Probably every missionary, when he sets out for a foreign 
land, goes with large expectations of success ; yet how few 
realize all that they looked for I Certainly this is tho 
experience of at least some of the members of our Mission. 
Where we looked fur hundreds of converts, we have seen 
only tens ; and where we looked for many earnest and 
zealous church members, we have seen only a few of this 
character ; while the mass seem to have spiritual life in 
but a low degree. 

Though it is often said, (and said with truth,) that the 
increase of church members is much larger in India, in 
proportion to the number of ministers, than it is in America, 
yet the increase is anything but satisfactory, both here 
and there. The results of missionary labor in our Mission, 
in actual conversions, during the 50 years it has been in 
existence, have been so much smaller than we might fairly 
have expected, that it becomes us at this semi-centenary 
Btage of our work, to ponder the situation. Did we under- 
estimate the obstacles ? Did we over-estimate the loving 
purposes of God, and the power of his grace ? Is it not 
more likely that our error was in thinking God would 
work wonders of grace, through us, as his instruments, 
irrespective of our fitness for his j)urpose ? Have we been 
of one mind with him in this matter ? Have we lived and 
walked in the Spirit — mortifying all unholy passions, and 
carefully eschewing all that is worldly ? Have our lives 
been lives of fellowship with the Father and with his Son 
Jesus Christ ? Have we felt the dishonor done to God by 
the idolatry, and wickedness of the land ? And, mourning 



92 THB OUTLOOK. 

ovor tho spiritual wastes around us, have we gone forth 
weeping as wo bore the precious seed of the Gospel, to 
Bfiitter it bruadudst on every side 't Have we been oousciouB 
that in our missionary labors we were workers together with 
God t lias the Gospel preached by us been nothing but 
the simple Gospel of the grncc of God, unfettered by legal 
conditions ? Again, niaij it not be that God has withheld 
the great blessings we looked for, because lie saw we were 
not in a state of mind to give him all the glory 'i 

No doubt there are obstacles, outside of ourselves, to the 
conversion of the heathen ; and as a miraculous removal of 
these is not to be expected, their removal is to be sought 
in the use of the means God has put in our power ; and it 
may be that we have erred hitherto in our estimate of these 
obstacles, or in the means used to remove or surmount 
them. It may be that our methods of procedure have been 
at fault. The whole ground should be surveyed anew ; and 
when we have seen clearly what the strong holds of Satan 
are, and what are their most assailable points, — and when 
we have learned, from the inspired word, and from experi- 
ence, what the mighty agencies are, which God has ordained 
for the overthrow of these strongholds, let us see to it, that, 
if there is to be failure, the responsibility of that failure 
shall not be ours. 

Ignorant as we are of the time of the Lord's coming and 
kingdom, may we not hope that this semi-centenary will 
be tho dividing line between small achievements and great 
eucoess in the missionary work ? Shall we not take hold 
of God's strength 'i And may we not hope that this will 
be a new era in the work of evangelization ? 

The grand difficulty which tho Gospel has everywhere to 
contend with, of course, is the natural corruption of the 
human heart : and this can be successfully dealt with only 
by the mighty power of God's Iloly S^iirit — exerted 
ordinarily in immediate connection with the preaching of 
Christ crucified. It was on this, instrumentally, that the 
apostle Paul mainly relied ; and he relied not in vain. 

13iit, besides this, there are external obstacles which de- 
mand attention ; such, for example, as the godless education 
which multitudes arc now receiving in Government schools 
and colleges ; the anti-christian books which arc circulated 
among the better educated people by the Mahomeduus of 



THE OUTLOOK. 93 

India and the infidels of Europe and America ; also the 
wicked lives of many Europeans, who, bearing the Chris- 
tian name, bring Cl)ristianity into contempt. And may 
not another serious obstacle be found in the worldlines3 
which characterizes a large part of the church at home — 
the church whose representatives we are ? Will God great- 
ly bless the work of such a church ? There ought surely 
to be great searchings of heart among the members of that 
Christian community in America which considers our work 
its own. 

There are things, in the general outlook, which are cal- 
culated, in themselves, to encourage hope. There can be 
no doubt that many favorable influences are now at work, 
which, in forecasting the future, ought not to be overlook- 
ed. They form parts of Grod's providential arrangements ; 
and are intended perhaps to prepare the way for the con- 
version of multitudes, when the proper time comes for an 
outpouring of the Spirit, whether that be before or after 
the Lord's coming. Some of these are of a religious, and 
some, of a secular nature. 

Among them may be mentioned, (1) The gradual under- 
mining of Hindooism, by the wide-spreading influence of 
Western Science ; and in this way even the Government 
Schools may subserve, in a measure, the great end of Chris- 
tian Missions, though their immediate influence is un- 
favourable : (2) The weakening of the bonds of caste — 
which has always been a barrier to the profession of Chris- 
tianity. This is being effected by the general enlighten- 
ment which results tVom western education, by increasing 
intercourse of Hindoos with Europeans, by the eleva- 
tion of many low-caste people, on account of their know- 
ledge of English and their natural ability, to offices of 
honor and trust, by the levelling influence of railway 
travel — where the distinctions of caste are ignored, and 
by the fact that the Rulers of the country, to whom all 
must defer, are a people that have no caste : (-3) The 
silent influence of the instruction given in Mission Schools, 
and especially the evangelization of Heathen females : (4) 
The circulation of Christian books : (5) The conciliating 
influence of Mission and other European Dispensaries, 
Hospitals, and Asylums : (6) The rise of reforming sects 
of Hindoos — such as the Brahmo Somaj— which discredit the 



94 THE OUTLOOK. 

suporstitlons of Tlindooism, and which, by comparison, if 
by notliing- else, exalt the prineii)les of Christianity : (7) 
The doniieiliug of Christianity in India, by which the 
people are becoming familiar with it as a fact : (8) The 
fact that conversions cause less estrangement between the 
converts and their families and friends than they did former- 
ly : and (9) The growing conviction in the public mind that 
Christianity is destined to become the religion of India. 

In considering what classes of society are most likely to 
be brought speedily under the influence of the Gospel, wo 
are taught by past experience not to look for these among 
tlie rich, the priests of other religions, or men educated ia 
Government schools, nor even among the inhabitants of 
cities ; for while a few of this last class have been numbered 
among our converts, much the largest part has come from 
villages, though the Gospel has been preached far less in 
the villages than in the cities. In connection with this it 
should be noted, that while the city population of the 
Punjab amounts to less than 3,000,000, the populaticm of 
the villages (over 50,000 in number) is almost 20,000,000. 
Another fact worthy of notice is, that at some of our sta- 
tions, and in missions of other societies, a large proportion 
of the converts have been from the lowest castes, — such as 
weavers, leather-dressers, and sweepers. 

Many from the different classes of Religious Mendicants, 
too, have shown a readiness to accept Christianity ; which 
has sometimes inspired a hope that large numbers of thera 
might be won to Christ. Some of them have been converted, 
and of these some have become preachers : one of them has 
for several years been in the ministry of our church. Others 
however have greatly disappointed us — showing that they 
had no just appreciation of Gospel truth. 

But these are not the only ones of whom high hopes 
have been indulged— only to be disappointed. Some havo 
apostatized out of almost every class of persons baptized ; 
while others — chiefly men educated in our schools — seeming 
to be very near to the kingdom of God, have hesitated 
year after year to receive baptism ; and then have gone 
further and further off, resisting the Holy Spirit, and so 
making it less and less probable that they will ever be saved. 
Some of these have already become old and grey-headed. 
What may be the state of their hearts we know not. Vex-^ 



THE OUTLOOK. 95 

haps they should not be regarded as altogether beyond 
hope ; and if not, then should not special prayer be offered 
for them ? And should not special private efforts be made 
to awaken their consciences anew ? 

Moreover, as salvation is the experience of individual 
souls, not of masses ; is it not probable that more success 
would attend our efforts, if they were directed, more than 
they are, to private and personal dealing with those who 
show an interest in the truth set forth in our public 
addresses. 

Let none be despaired of— not even the bitter opponents 
of the Q-ospel. Saul of Tarsus is only one of many whose 
enmity has been turned by Divine grace into ardent love 
and whole-hearted devotion. 

It is my deep conviction that on the possession of such 
love, and such devotion, on our part, more than on any- 
thing else, depends the success of our missionary work. 



13 



( 97 ) 



APPENDIX. 



The correct spelling of the names found in the preceding 
pages will be shown by the following Table. 

N. B. — In the Orientalized Roman Alphabetj 

a has the sound of u in the English word hut ; 



a 


» 


» 


a 


» 


far; 


e 


)) 


55 


e 


» 


they; 


i 


>> 


J) 


i 


»> 


pin ; 


1 


>) 


)J 


i 


» 


machine ; 





)) 


5> 





» 


note ; 


u 


j> 


5) 


u 


)} 


pull; 


u 


5) 


» 


u 


» 


rule ; 


ai 


)) 


)) 


ai 


» 


aisle ; 


au 


» 


J> 


ou 


>j 


our ; 



ch „ „ ch „ change; 

gh is a deep guttural g. 

kh is a deep guttural k, with an aspirate, like ch in 

the Scotch loch. 
q is a deeper guttural than simple A-. 
The dots are of no practical importance to a foreigner. 

Note. The first column of names shows the method of 
spelling usually adopted by foreigners, while the second 
column shows the more correct spelling of the natives. 
The third column, which explains many of these names, is 
added for the sake of a certain class of readers who are like- 
ly to be interested in whatever may serve to throw light on 
their etymology. 



( 98 ) 



English. 



Native. 



AbdooUah 
Afghan 


Abd-Ullah 
Afjjan 


Afghanistan 
Agra 

Ahmed Shah 
Akhbar 
Allahabad 


Afgiinistan 
Agra 

Ahmad Shah 
Akhbar 
Ilahabad 


Annee 

Anund Maseeh 
Assam 
Bazar, bazaar 


Ani 

Anand Masih 

Asam 

Ba^ar 


Beeas, Bea9 
Benares 


Biyas 
Banaras 



Bengalee Bangali 

Bose [mun Bos 

Brahmin, Brah- Brahman 

Brahmo Brahmo 



Cabul 

Cabuliea 

CalcuttQi 
Cawnpore 



Kabul 
Kabuliea 
Kalkuti 
Jiahupur 



Chenab Chhanab 

Chumar Cliamap 

Chumba-Paharie Chamba-Pahari 



Chuijar 
Delhi 



Chynar 
Dihli 



Deva Nagree Deya Nagari 



Deyrah 
Dooab, Do^b 

Doo^ba 

Doon 
Duleep Singh 

Durbar 

Durree 



Dehr4 
Doab 

Duaba 

Dlin 

Dhalip Sipgh 

Durbar 
Darf 



Erpla7iation. 

A eervant of Ood. 

The Afgaus are a haughty race of 

Muhaiiiiriadans living Webt of 

the Indus. 
The country of the Afgans. 



News. 



The Joy of Chri3t. 

A street in which there are shops, 

stores, &c. 
One of the rivers of the Panjab. 
This is considered the most holy 

city of the Hindus, 



One of the Priestly caste of Hindus. 

A member of t o Brahma Somaj — 
a sect of Reformed Hindus. 

The capital of Afganistan. 

People of Kabul. 

The capital of British India. 

The place where our Fathgarh Mis- 
sionaries and others wore massa- 
prgd in 18o7. 

One of the rivers of the Panjab. 

The caste of leather dressers. 

BelongiTig to the rnountaius about 
Chamba, 

The capital of India in the time of 
the ISluhammadan Empire. 

The written character of the gods — 
the character in which the sacred 
books of the Hindus were written. 

T'le country lying between the 

Ganges and the Jumua. 
The country lying between the Sfit- 

luj and the Biyas. 
A vallej'. 
A son of the Mahanlja Ranjit Singh, 

who became a ChristiHn. 
A court or assembly held by a 

chief, &c. 
A kind of carpet. 



( 99 ) 



English. 

Esa Ohurrun 
Esu Da 8 
Ferozepnre 
Fuquecr.Fakeer, 

Fuqt er 
FuiTuckabad 
Futtehj^urh, 

Futteghur 
Ganges 

Garhdi-wala 
Garhmuktisar, 
Gurmookteeeur 
Ghat, Ghaut 
Ghorawaha 

Goloknath 

Goorkha 

Goormookhee 

Gooroo 
Gooroo Daa 

Maitra. 
Govind Singh 
Himalaya, Him- 

maleh 

Hindee 

Hindoo 

Hoshyarpore 
Hurdwar 

H5'derabad 
JrfgendraChun- 

dra Bose 
Jhelum 
Jugadhree 
Jugraon 
Jullunder 
Jumna 
Jwala Mookhee 



Kallee Churrun 
Chatterjee 



Native. 

Tsi Charan 
I'sa Das 
Fi'ro/.pur 
Faqir 

Parrukhabad 
Fathgarh 

Ganga 

Garhdiwala 
Garhmuktisar 

GhAt 
Ghorawaha 

Goloknath 

Gurkha 

GurmukM 

Guru 
Guru Das 
Maitra. 
Govind Singb 
Himalya 

Hindi 

Hindu 

Hoshyarpur 
Hardwar 

Haidarabad 
Jogeudra Chan- 
dra Bos 
Jihlam 
JagadQri 
Jai^rawan 
Jfilandhar 
Jamna 
Jwala Mukhi 



Kali Charan 
Chatarji 



Explanation. 

Ono who is at the feet of Jesus. 
A servant of Jesus. 
The victorious or prosperous city. 
A mendicant. 



Fort Victory. 

Name of the most 
rivers of India. 



sacred of the 



A landing place. A bathin? place, &c. 

"Where "plowing is done with 
horses" (r) 

One of the names of Krishna : lite- 
rally, Lord of the cow world. 

One of the hill tribe which governs 
Naipal. 

The character in which the sacred 
books of the Sikhs are written. 

A religious guide. 

Guru Das is a "servant of the 
Guru." Maitra is a family name. 

The name of the last Sikh Guru. 

Name of the mountains on the 
North-east of India : lit. Place 
of snow. 

The vernacular of a large part of 
North India. 

An a'lherent of theBrahmanical Re- 
ligion. 

A sacred place, where the Ganges 
issues from the mountains. 



[Panjab. 
Name of one of the rivers of the 



The principal branch of the Gang^^s. 

A sacred place in the Panjab where 
a flame, issuing from the ground, 
is worshipped as a goddess. 



( 100 ) 



English. 



Native. 



Ka8hincer,Kaf»h-| Kashmir 
mcro.Cashmcruj 



Kashmerco 

Keswalo 
Khiimiah 
Khutireo 
Kohuioor 

Kooleen 



Kashmiri 

Keswale 
Khanna 
Khiittri 
Kuh-i-Nur 

Kulia 



Kooloo Kulii 

Kower Sain Kanwar Sain 

Kupoorthula Kapiiithala, 

Kurachee Karaiichi 
Kvirnaiil, Kurnal Karnal 

Kupsoor Qasur, Kasur 

Ijadwa Lr'idwa, Ladua 

Lahore Iji'ihaur 

Lai Baigeea Lai lje;,'ies 



Explanation. 

Name of a beautiful valley in the 
mountains, in tho North-west, — 
spokon of, soniotimea, by tho 
inhabitants, as having been tho 
Garden of Eden. 

A person of tho race which inhabits 
Kashmir. 

Ilaving hair : that is long hair. 

[Hindus. 

Name of a high caste among tho 

' Mountain ofLight" — a name given 
to a certain large diamond. 

Belonging to a good family — having 
a good ancestry : (applied to a 
class of Uangali Brahmans.) 

Name of a district in the mountains. 



Landour 


Landhaur 


I.odiana, 


')Ludehana, Lii- ', 
) dhiana 


Loodianu. &c. 


Mahabhiirat 


Mahabharat 


Maharajah 


Maharaja 


Mahomcdan, 


Muhammadan 


Mohammedan 




Manimajra, 


Manimajra 


Munimajra 


Mecrut 


Merath 


Mehtur, Mater 


Mihtar 


Mogul 


]\[ugiil ^ 


Mounshee 


iMunshi 


Moosullce 


Musalli 


Morinda 


Morand a ,Mohand i 


Moulvie 


Maulavi 



Mozuffernuggcr I^luzaffarnagar 
Muune Munue 



Tho capital of the Pan jab. 
Followers of Lai lieg, believed by 
thorn to have been GoJ's sweeper. 



Tho name of a famous Sanskrit poem 
Literally, a great king. 



"A prince" — a compensative title 
given to sweepers. 

[literature. 

A scribo, and a teacher of Persian 

A name given to sweepers who have 
become Muhaiumadans j moaning 
one who prays, 
i 

A learned Muhammadan, — some- 
thing like a D. D. 

Shaven, or cropped; applied to a 
class of Sikhs who havo their 
hair cut. 



( 101 ) 



English. 



Native. 



Explanation. 



Mussoorie 


Mansuri 


Musalman 


Musalman 


Musselman 


Muttra 


Mathura 


Muzhubee, 


i Mazhabi 


Muzboo 


Nanuk 


Nanak 


Nawab 


Nawab 


Nepaloe 


Naipiili 


Noor Ufshan 


Niir Afshan 


Oordoo 


Urdu 



Oude 
Pandas 



Awadh 
Pandas 



Pehoa 

Peshawur Peshawar 

Poorun Chuud ) Piirau Chand 

Ooppel ) Uppal 
Pundit Paudit 

Punjab, Punjaub Punjab 
Punjabee Panjabi 



Pushto 

Eajpoot 

Eajpootana 
Earn Ohunder 

Eamdassee 



Eajah 
Eajpore 
Eavee 
Eawul Pindee 

Eohilcund 
Eobtuk 



Pasbtu, Pakhtu 

Eajput 

Rajputana 
Earn C bandar 

Eamdasi 



Eaja 

Rajpur 

Ravi 

Rawal Pindi 

Ruhilkhaud 

Eobtak 



One who is in peace and safety ; 
tbat is, a follower of Muhammad. 

Literally, one who has a religion : 
a name given to sweepers wbo 
have became Sikhs. 

The name of the founder of the 
Sikh religion. 

A Muhammadan nobleman. 

An inhabitant of Naipal. 

Literally, "Light Scattercr." 

The name of a language used ex- 
tensively in Lidia, made up of 
Hindi, Sangskrit, Persian, and 
Arabic, otherwise called Hindus- 
tani. [India. 

The name of a province in North 

The name borne by iivo brothers — 
princes distinguished in Hindu 
history. 



A learned Hindu, of the Priestly 
caste. 

The country of the Five Rivers ; viz 
the Satluj, the Biyas, the Ravi, 
the Ghhanab, and the Jihlum. 

The vernacular of the Punjab — es- 
pecially the villages : an inhabi- 
tant of the Panjab. 

The vernacular language of the 
Afgans. 

A king's son , name of a princely 
caste. 

The country of the Rajputs. 

Name of a king who was regarded as 
an incarnation of the god Vishnu. 

Sikhs, spring from a low caste of 
Hindus, — Leather dressers, wea- 
vers, &c. 

A king. 

[Panjab. 

Name of one of the rivers of the 



( 102 ) 



English. 

Rooper 
Iloorkee 
Kunjeet Singh 



Sanscrit 
Shahabad 
Shah Shooja 
Shah Zuiuan 



Native. 

Rojiar 
Rurki 
Kaujit Singh 



San Prakrit 
Shahrlbad 
Shah Shiijii 
Shiih Zamiia 



Shee'a Shin 

Sikh, Sikh, Seik Sikkh, Sikh 

Sindh.Sind.Scind Sindh 



Singh, Sing 

Simla 

Smdhee 

Sirhind 

Soondor Lai 

Soonneo 

Subatboo 

Suharunpore 

Suntoke Majra 

Sunyasee 

Siitlej, Sutledge 

Syud 

Tiiakooreo 



Singh 

Shaiiila 

Siiidhi 

Surhand 

Sundar La.1 

Sunrii 

Sabathii, Sapatu 

Saharanj^iir 

Saiitakh Majra 

Sunyasi 

Satluj 

Saiyad 

'J'hakuri 



Thanesur Thanosur 

TJmballa Ambala 

Urnrit8ur,Uinrit-> Amrit^r 
zur, Amritzuri 



TJinala 
Uehruf UUoe 


Ajnala 
Ashraf Ali 


Zenana 

zaia 


Z.inana 
Zila 



Explanation. 



Namo of a faraoua king who ruled 
oviT the Punjab in the early part 
of this contury. 

The sacred language of the Hindus. 

The name of an Afgan king) Both of 

,, ,, ,, ,, ^t h e m 

having been exiled from Kiibul, 

and become pensioners of the 

British Oovernment. at Lodiana. 

A sect of Muhaminadans. 

Literally, a disciple : a distinctive 
title of the followers of Nanali. 

The region of country near the 
mouth of the Indus. 

Literally, a lion. 

The language of Sindh. 



A sect of Muhammadans. 



Tho villago of content 
A class of Hindu Faqirs. 
One of the rivers of the Panjab. 
A descendant of Muhammad. 
One of the written characters of the 
country. 



The Fountain of Immortality ;" 
the name of the largest city in the 
Panjab, — so called from a sacred 
tank within its walls. 



The women's apartment of a house. 
A district, like a county. 



SKETCH OF THE FDRRUKHABAD MISSION 

From Us beginning in the year 1836 to the close of 1884. 

By Mrs. H. H. Holcomb. 

It may not be amiss in giving a short account of the 
Furrukhabad Mission to refer briefly to the beginning of 
the Foreign Mission work of the Presbyterian Church in 
America, a Church which from its organization has been a 
Missionary Church. The Presbytery of Philadelphia was 
the first Presbytery organized in America, and was founded 
about the year 1704. The Greneral Assembly, comprising 
four Synods, was constituted in 1788, and met for the first 
time in Philadelphia, in May, 1789; and during its sessions 
the missionary cause claimed its earnest attention. ''The 
four Synods, then existing under the Assembly, were direct- 
ed to provide and recommend, each, two missionaries to the 
next Assembl}^ ; and that funds might be prepared to meet 
the expense expected to be incurred, it was enjoined on all 
Presbyteries to take measures for raising collections in 
all the congregations within their bounds." The work so 
auspiciously begun, continued to grow in extent and inter- 
est, with the growth of the Church. In the infancy of 
the Church, when her members were poor in everything but 
courage, it did not seem practicable to undertake missions to 
the heathen of other lands. Yet very soon, and while the 
Church was still far from strong, either in numbers or in 
wealth, and while tlie needs at home were many and pressing, 
men and means were found for the beginning of a work for 
Christ beyond the confines of the new world. 

The first formal Mission to the heathen, instituted by 
the Presbyterian Church of America, w^as a Mission to the 
Indians inhabiting tlie wilderness to which the Pilgrim 
Fathers had come, to make for themselves a home where 
they could worship Grod according to the dictates of their 
own consciences. "The Church of Scotland was their 

14 



( 104 ) 

mother Church ; and to her they looked, to enable them to 
Bend the Gospel to tbe pagans of the wilderness." *' The 
Society in Scotland tor propagating Christian Knowledge," 
was organized in Edinburgh, in 1701. This Society, in 
1841, established a "Board of Correspondents" in New 
York, and this Board appointed the Kev. Azuriah Horton, 
a member of the Presbytery of New York, to labor as a 
missionary on Longlsland. among the Indians resident there. 
The second missionary appointed by this Board was the 
devoted David Brainerd, who was ordained as a missionary 
by the Presbytery of New York, on the 12th of June, 1744. 

In arduous and self-denying labor among the Indians 
of Pennsylvania and New Jersey Mr. Brainerd was occu- 
pied until his death, which occurred on the 9th of October, 
1747, and before he had completed the thirtieth year of 
his age. But a short time before his death Mr. Brainerd 
■was visited by his brother, the liev. John Brainerd, who 
had been appointed to succeed him ; and the heart of the 
dying missionary was comforted by the thought that his 
beloved flock would not be left without a shepherd. 

Both Mr. Horton and ALr. David Brainerd received 
their support from Scotland. Mr. John Brainerd, like 
his predecessors, corresponded with the Christian Knowl- 
edge Society in Scotland, but he was supported chiefly, if 
Dot wholly, by funds derived from the contributions of 
Presbyterian congregations in America. 

Such a beginning had the work which now fills so large a 
place in the hearts of the Christian people of America. 

The Synod of Pittsburgh, which from its organization had 
been distinguished for missionary enterprise and effort, in 
November, 1831, founded a society called the "Western 
Foreign Missionary Society," and elected the Kev. Elisha 
P. Swift its first corresponding secretary. In hearty 
accord with the objects of the society, Mr. Swift resigned the 
pastoral care of an important congregation, to accept the office 
to which he had been elected, and devoted all his time and 
all his energies to the promotion of the infant enterprise. 
Destitute of funds as was the young society, the salary of 
the secretary, for the first year, w^is secured by the timely 
and liberal gift of one thousand dollars from the Hon. 
Walter Lowrie, at that time the Secretary of the Senate of 
the United States. 



( 105 ) 

Western Africa and India claimed the first attention of 
the executive committee of the liew society. A circular 
letter was addressed to the " Societies of Inquiry on 
Missions" in the Theological Seminaries of Princeton andj 
Allegheny ; and in response, communications were received 
from Mr. John B. Pinuey of the Theological Seminary at 
Princeton, and from Messrs. John C. Lowrie, and William 
Keed of the Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny, 
offering to place themselves under the care and direction of 
the executive committee, as missionaries to the heathen. 
The heart of Mr. Pinney was set toward Africa, and this ulti- 
mately became his destination ; while the other two brethren 
were assigned to India. Mr. Reed was ordained to the work 
of the Gospel ministry by the Presbytery of Huntingdon, 
in Pennsylvania. The ordination services took place in the 
church in which Mr. Reed was devoted to God, first by 
baptism, and subsequently by the public profession of his 
faith in Christ. The Presbytery of Huntingdon cheerfully 
undertook the support of their young missionary. Th^ 
Presbytery of New Castle, Delaware, became responsible 
for the support of Mr. Lowrie, and appointed a special 
meeting for his ordination, in the city of Philadelphia, 
during the sessions of the General Assembly. lie was 
accordingly set apart to the work of the ministry, in the 
presence of a large assembly, in the 1st Presbyterian church 
of the city, on the 23rd of May, 1833. On the evening 
preceding the departure of the missionaries from Philadel- 
phia a very interesting missionary meeting was held in the 
2nd Presbyterian church Arch street. On this occasion the 
assembly was addressed by the Rev. John C. Lowrie and, 
the Rev William Reed ; and also by the Hon. Walter Lowrie, 
the father of one of the missionaries. On the following day 
the missionaries proceeded to New Castle, where in the 
stream opposite that place the ship "Star," in which they 
had taken passage for their long voyage, was anchored. 

The departing missionaries united in prayer with their 
friends on the shore, before embarking, then bade them adieu 
with a degree of cheerfulness and composure which plainly 
proved that their minds were stayed on God. The little 
boat which had conveyed them to the ship, returned to the 
shore, the " Star" weighed her anchor, spread her sails, 
which a fine breesse soon filled ; — and under circumstances^ 



( 106 ) 

BO favorable, did our first missionaries begin their voyage 
to India. With the history of the little band, going so 
bravely forth on its Christ-like mission, we are all familiar. 
The party reached Calcutta on the loth of October, but 
one of the number, the young and lovely Mrs. Lovvrie, 
death had even then marked fur his own. In delicate health 
before her departure, Mrs. Lowrie's illness had increased 
during the voyage, and she knew, when her feet pressed 
the soil of the land where she had hoped to be spent in 
loving service for the Master, that she had come only to 
find a grave. Yet her faith did not fail. The strangers 
upon their arrival were kindly received by the Kev. W. H. 
and Mrs. Pearce, of the 13a])tist Mission ; and in this 
Christian home, which had opened its hospitable 
doors to receive the mission party, Mrs. Lowrie, on the 
evening of the 21st of November, passed peacefully away; 
and a little company of strangers followed her to her grave. 
Not thus had the first heralds of the cross sent by our 
Church to this couutr}', thought to occupy the land ; 
but the Master had so willed it, and to his will they 
bowed. But God had yet other lessons of sorrow for 
these his servants. Not long after their arrival in Calcutta 
Mr. Reed's health began to decline, and it soon became 
evident that he was suffering from pulmonary consumption. 
Medical skill availed nothing in his case, and when all hope 
of a life of usefulness in India was at an end, at the advice 
of his physicians, Mr. and Mrs. Reed took passage for 
America, leaving Calcutta on the 23rd of July, 18^54. Mr. 
Reed's condition grew rapidly worse at sea, and on tlie morn- 
ing of the 12th of August '' his happy soul was released from 
its prison of clay, to join the redeemed above." In the 
evening of the same day his body was committed to the 
deep, near one of the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of 
Bengal. Mrs. Reed reached Philadelphia on the 8th of Dec. 
After consultation with missionaries of experience in 
Calcutta Mr. Lowrie decided to proceed to the Punjab, 
as that field was unoccupied by missionary laborers. Alone 
Mr. Lowrie entered upon his long journey, leaving Calcutta 
but a few days after the departure of Mr. and Mrs. Reed 
for America. Mr. Lowrie travelled by boat on tlie Ganges 
from Calcutta to Cawnpore, and from Cawnpore to Lodiana 
by palanquin, reaching his destination on the evening of 



( 107 ) 

November 5th. Lodiana was as that time the frontier 
station of the English. The Political Agent residing at 
this out-post, Captain, afterwards Sir C. M. Wade, received 
Mr. Lowrie most cordially, giving him the assurance that 
to further his objects he would render such assistance as 
was in his power. 

At a meeting of the executive committee held on the 
15th of May, 1834, it was resolved to send to Northern 
India in the ensuing autumn, to engage in missionary 
labor, two brethren who had offered themselves for this 
service, Messrs. Newton and Wilson. In October of the 
same year, Mr. John Newton was ordained by the First 
Presbytery of New York ; and Mr. James Wilson by the 
Presbytery of Hudson. On the 28th of October an in- 
teresting missionary meeting was he'd in the 10th Presby- 
terian Church of Philadelphia, wlieu these brethren received 
their instructions, and took leave of their friends. A fare- 
well meeting was held on the evening of the 29th of October, 
in the Eev. Dr. M'Auley's church, New York city ; and on 
the 4th of November the party sailed from Boston in the 
ship " Greorgia." The two missionary brethren were accom- 
panied by their wives ; and with this party sailed the first 
single lady sent out by the Presbyterian Church in America, 
to labor for the women of India. With this party the 
Hon. Walter Lowrie sent as a gift to the Mission, for the 
use of a high school in Northern India, a valuable philo- 
sophical apparatus, with the hope that " by the blessing of 
Heaven it might prove the means of undermining the false 
systems of philosophy adopted by the heathen, and conse- 
quently their false systems of religion, with which their 
philosophy is intimately, if not inseparably connected." 

The missionary party arrived in Calcutta on the 25th of 
February, 1835, and were detained in that city until the 
following June. While waiting in Calcutta, persons well 
acquainted with the state of the country, represented to 
Miss Davis, that the way was not then open for work 
among the women of North India, — a great disappointment 
to one who had hoped to spend her life in such a service. 
While thus perplexed, a way out of the difficulty was opened 
by what one of the brethren was pleased to designate as 
" a very happy interference of Providence." Mr. John 
Goadby, a Baptist missionary of Cuttack, was at that time 



( 103 ) 

in Calcutta, and invited Miss Davis to engage in mission- 
ary work among the women of Cuttack as Mrs. Goadby ; 
and on the first of April the two were united in marriage 
and set out for Cuttack. 

The liev. Messrs Newton and Wilson, with their wives, 
left Calcutta on the 24th of June, and reached Futtehgurh, 
ou their journey to Lodiana, near the end of October. 
There they found tents prepared for their reception, and in 
these canvas houses they immediately took up their abode. 
The first stage of their journey from Futtehgurh was 
made on Saturday, the r30th of October. The following Sab- 
bath was speut in a pleasant grove, between two ancient 
temples, outside the walls of the city of Furrukhabad On 
the afternoon of the Sabbath the two brethren went into the 
city to distribute among the people tracts in their own 
language, which they had brought with them from Calcutta. 
These were received with great eagerness by the people, and 
their supply was soon exhausted. The following day a 
young man followed their camp nine miles, to make request 
for a book. The missionaries were much pleased with Fur- 
rukhabad and its neighborhood, and were persuaded that it 
would be a favorable place for the establishment of a mission 
station. 

Mr. Lowrie had suffered so mucb from ill health during 
his residence in India, that he at length decided, though 
with great reluctance, to follow the advice of his physi- 
cians and return to America. He had found it necessary 
to spend the hot season of 1834 in Simla, but returned to 
the plains in time to go out one hundred and fifty miles to 
meet the mission party, and to escort the little band to Lodi- 
ana, which place was reached on the 8th of December, 1835, 

Mr. Lowrie left Lodiana on the 21st of the following 
January, on his return to America, and arrived in Calcutta 
in time to welcome the second reinforcement of missionaries, 
consisting of the Kev. Messrs James McEwen, James 
li. Campbell, Messrs William S. Rogers. Jesse M. Jaraieson 
and Joseph Porter, and their wives. This party had sailed 
from New Castle, on the 1 6th of November 1835. and landed 
in Calcutta on the 2nd of the following A])ril. Mr. Lowrie 
left (klcutta in the ship " Hibernia" soon after the arrival 
of the mission party, and reached America ou the 18th of 
February, 1837. 



( 109 ) 

The new missionaries remained in Calcutta until the 1 3th 
ot July. While coming up the Granges, a little above 
Bhagalpur they eneounted a severe storm, in which 
the cook's boat was upset, as well as one of the luggage 
boats. The mission library was lost, and also a box con- 
taining some parts of a printing press, as well as a quantity 
of printing paper. Upon the arrival of the party in Cawn- 
pore it was ascertained that the missing parts of the press 
could not be supplied in the Upper Provinces ; and it was 
accordingly decided that one of their number should return 
to Allahabad, where the parts lacking could be obtained ; 
and where also the services of a printer could be secured. 
Joined to this necessity was the fact that the Christian 
residents of Allahabad had earnestly requested one of the 
party to settle in that city, to render assistance in English 
preaching. The only missionary at that time engaged in 
work at Allahabad was the Rev. Mr. Mcintosh, who had 
been sent to that city by the Baptists of Serampore. It was 
unanimously decided that Mr. McEwen should return to 
Allahabad to engage in work there. 

Mr. McEwen found the field so extensive, and the pros- 
pects for usefulness so encouraging, that it was decided to 
occupy Allahabad permanently. A boarding school was 
established, chiefly of orphan girls, and a day school for 
Eurasian children and youth was opened. Mr. McEwen 
engaged regularly in English preaching, and in January, 
1837, a Church, consisting of twelve members, was organized 
and called the Mission Church. From his first arrival in 
India, Mr. McEwen had suffered from ill health, and at 
length his strength so rapidly declined that it was consid- 
ered advisable for him to return to America; he therefore 
left India early in the year 1838. Mr. McEwen, though 
laboring in connection with the Presbyterian Church, was 
a missionary of the Associate Reformed Church of America. 
Upon Mr. McEwen' s retirement from the field the Rev. 
James Wilson was transferred from Sabathu to Allahabad. 
The third reinforcement of missionaries, consisting of eight 
persons, the Rev. Messrs Henry R. Wilson, John H. 
Morrison, Messrs James Craig and Reese Morris, with their 
wives, left America, sailing from New Castle on the 14th 
of October, 1837, and arriving in Calcutta the following 
April. Three weeks later Mrs. Morrison was attacked 



( no ) 

with cholera, which proved fatal. Though the summons 
came suddenly, Mrs. Morrison was prepared for the 
chauge. " Death has no terrors," she exclaimed but a 
short time before her departure ; " there is not a cloud, all 
is bright and clear." Then as her thoughts wandered back 
to the friends she had so recently left in another land, 
•' Tell them all at home," she said, "much as I love them, 
and fondly as my heart clings to them, tell them all, I 
am not sorry that I have left them all for Christ, though it 
be but to die in his service ; no, tell them I rejoice that I 
have been permitted to enjoy the privilege." When asked 
by her husband, as she seemed just on the confines of eter- 
nity, " How does the prospect now appear ?" she answered, 
"Grlorious," and with that triumphant utterance her ransom- 
ed spirit took its flight. Mrs. Morrison's grave, at her own 
request, was made beside that of Mrs. Lowrie. 

Mr. Morrison joined Mr. AVilson at Allahabad and Messrs 
Craig and Morris proceeded to Lodiana to labor within 
the bounds of that Mission. It was decided that Mr. Wil- 
son should begin work at Furrukhabad, as the city was a 
large and important one, and the field unoccupied Upon 
their arrival at Cawnpore the mission party learned that a 
pious physician of Futtehpore, Dr. Charles Madden, who 
had for some time supported one hundred orphan children, 
had been obliged, by the failing health of his wife, to leave 
the station, and was anxious to transfer fifty of these chil- 
dren to the care of a missionary, proposing, with them, to 
make over school apparatus and money, to the value of 
Ks. 1000. Captain Wheeler, another earnest Christian, had 
supported twenty orphans at Futtehgurh ; and at the time 
of the arrival of the mission party in India this officer was 
under marching orders. The twenty orphan children for whom 
he had hitherto cared he therefore desired to transfer to 
the care of a missionary. For Mr. Wilson work was thus 
provided before he reached the station to which he had 
been appointed. The fifty orphans from Futtehpore were 
sent to Cawnpore by boat, and from thence conducted by 
Mr. Wilson to I'uttehgurh, where the twenty otlier children 
consigned to his care by Captain Wheeler awaited his 
arrival. Mr. Wilson reached Futtehgurh on the 3rd of 
November, 1838, feeling that God had in a wonderful 
manner prepared the way for him. 



( in ) 

Upon his arrival in Allahabad, Mr. Morrison took charge 
of the English services. He v^as married in February, 
1839, to Miss Isabella Hay. 

The fourth reinforcement to our missions in North India 
consisted of the Rev. Messrs Joseph Warren, James L. 
Scott, and John E. Freeman, with their wives. This party 
left America October 12th, 1838, and arrived in India the 
following May. The Rev. Messrs Warren and Freeman 
were appointed to labor in Allahabad, and Mr. Scott in 
Futtehgurh. With this party had been sent from Ameri- 
ca a printing press, and as Mr. Warren had some practical 
knowledge of printing, it was decided that he should 
superintend the work of the press. 

Mr. and Mrs. Scott reached Futtehgurh in August, 1839, 
and upon their arrival found a field of labor in connection 
with the orphanage, which at that time contained one 
hundred and nine orphans, twenty of this number having 
been bequeathed to Mr. Wilson by a gentleman from Bar- 
eilly, on condition that they be known as the "Rohilkund 
Branch" of the orphanage. In order to provide employment 
for the larger boys in the orphanage, six workmen were 
brought from Mirzapore, to give instruction and aid in the 
art of carpet weaving ; and with an outlay of rupees three 
hundred this branch of industry was inaugurated. 

On the 5th of August, 1840, the Rev. Messrs John 0. 
Rankin, William H. McAuley and Joseph Owen, together 
with Mrs. Rankin, Mrs. McAuley and Miss Jane Vander- 
veer sailed from Boston for India, landing at Calcutta Dec. 
24th. Mr. Owen was assigned to Allahabad, and all the 
other members of the party to Futtehgurh. The necessity 
for a superior school for native youth having been felt at 
Allahabad, such a school was at this time organized and 
in connection with this school Mr. Owen rendered most 
efficient aid. While detained in Calcutta, before his journey 
to the north, Mr. Owen visited the Institution of the Gene- 
ral Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, under the superinten- 
dence of Dr. Duff. The Institution had been in existence 
more than ten years, and numbered about six hundred 
pupils. Mr. Owen declared thi.s school to be to him, by far, 
the most interesting object in the great city. On the 7th of 
Nov. 1844, Mr. Owen was united in marriage to Augusta 
Margaret, youngest daughter of Major Greneral Proctor. 

15 



( 112 ) 

On the 5th of July, 1840, a native Church was organized 
at Allahabad, the ordinance of baptism having beeu at the 
beginning oft hat year administered for the hrst time by 
our missionaries of that city, to a native of the country, on 
profession of faith. (Several others received this ordinance 
during the year. It was during this year that for the 
first time in Allahabad the Hindustani language was used 
■when the Lord's ISupper was administered. Of this infant 
Church the Kev. J ames Wilson was installed pastor in 
February, 1843. 

During the year 1840 a small chapel had been erected in the 
Chauk at Allahabad, and this was dedicated on the last Thurs- 
day of Uecember, 1840. The site was donated by Government, 
and the cost of the building, about rupees seven hundred, 
was contributed by friends in India. In 1844, a chapel in 
Kydgunj, one of the large suburbs of Allahabad, was built, 
means for this purpose having been furnished by a legacy 
left by a Musalmani woman who had embraced Christianity. 
This woman, at her death, as she had no relatives, bequeath- 
ed her property to the mission. In these chapels services 
were held several times during the week, and in each 
a vernacular school was also taught. 

The mission property on the banks of the Jumna ?« 
Allahabad was purchased in the year 1840. To this place 
removed the Hev. Messrs AVilson and Freeman, with Lheir 
families. A part of the extensive out-offices were put in 
order to receive the girls' orphanage, and a house for the 
boys' orphanage was built on the grounds. On the op- 
posite side of the road was a parcel of laud attached to this 
estate, and on this land was a building that had been part 
of an old mint. This old house was repaired, and made a 
place for Hindustani worship. 

As has been said before, with Mr. Warren's party had 
been sent out from America a printing press and a quantity 
of paper; and upon Mr. Warren's arrival in Allahabad, 
he was asked by the mission to take charge of the press. 
Mr Warren undertook the work. There was no suitable 
building for a press, but in a bath-room in his own 
bungalow the Englit<h type was opened and put in cases : 
a stand was set up, and Mr. Warren patiently instructed 
a boy, named John, who with his sister had been left des- 
titute, and brought up in the care of the mission. In 



( 113 ) 

this small room John hegan his career as a printer on a 
little catechism by John Brown of lladding-tou. The press 
was set up in one of the out-houses near the kitchen. The 
boy who thus began his life-work is now, and has been 
for many years, one of the proprietors of the press, and an 
elder in one of our mission Churches in Allahabad. As 
soon as practicable a printing-house was built. This consis- 
ted at first of two large rooms, and a small store-room for 
paper. Two other rooms were afterwards added and in one 
of these rooms the Hindustani service was for a long time 
held on the Sabbath, for the " press congregation." Under 
Mr. Warren's energetic and efficient supervision the press 
became a most useful adjunct to the work of the mission. 
The first tract printed by this press, in the Arabic character, 
was one on " The Future State ;" and the first tract in Hindi 
was called "INicodemas the Inquirer." Both were prepared 
by Mr.Wilson. The first work in Roman-Urdu was a trans- 
lation by Mr. Wilson of the " Child's Book of the Soul.'' 

The Rev. Levi Janvier, and the Rev. John Wray, with 
their wives, embarked at New-Castle, on board the ship 
" Washington," for Calcutta on the 13th of September, 
1841, arriving in Allahabad the following March. Mr. 
and Mrs. Janvier made the " overland journey" from 
Calcutta to Allahabad in a carriage drawn by a camel, 
the journey occupying more than a month. Mr. and Mrs. 
Janvier were appointed to Lodiana, and Mr. and Mrs. Wray 
to Allahabad. The health of Mr. Morrison had by this 
time so declined, that it was deemed advisable for him to 
try for a time the effect of a hill climate. A season spent 
in a Himalayan station brought him little relief, and it 
was therefore decided that he should return to America. 
Mr. Morrison with his family left Allahabad for Calcutta 
in December, 1842. After a lingering illness, Mrs. Morrison 
died in Calcutta on the 14th of February. 1843, and was 
buried by the side of the first Mrs. Morrison. Mr. Morrison 
with his three motherless children, continued his journey 
to America, where he arrived in October, 1843. Thus 
terminated Mr. Morrison's connection with the Allahabad 
Mission, as after his return to India, he labored within 
the bounds of the Lodiana Mission. 

Until tlie year 1840 Futtehgurh had been connected 
"with the Allahabad Mission, but it was then decided to put 



( 114 ) 

it on an independent footing. In 1841 two mission houses 
were erected in Futtehgurh, and also a building i'or an 
orphanage, the latter at the expense of European residents 
in India. About this time a Church was organized, com- 
prising ten members, four of whom were natives of the 
country. One of the most interesting and important acts 
of the General Assembly of the United States, at its meeting 
in May, 1841, was tliat of constituting the missionary 
brethren connected with the Presbyterian Church in India, 
into Presbyteries, the "bishops" of each mission being organi- 
zed respectively into the Presbyteries of Lodiana, Allahabad, 
and Furrukhabad, w^ith provision for their meeting together 
as the Synod of North India. Gopi Nath Nundy, from 
Dr. Dult's Institution in Calcutta, was taken under the 
care of the Presbytery of Furrukhabad, as a candidate for 
the Gospel ministry. He was licensed to preach the Gospel 
in December, 184'3, and the following year was ordained to 
the work of an Evangelist, by the Piesbytery of Furrukh- 
abad. This is the first instance, it is believed, in modern 
times, in the entire East Avheu a native of the country 
received Presbyterian ordination. Gopi Nath Nundy 
was a native of Calcutta, and while a student in Dr. Duff's 
Institution, he became interested in Christianity, and at 
length decided, that cost what it might he would embrace 
it. He was baptized by Dr. Dulf on the 14th of December, 
1832. He afterwards became a teacher in the orphan 
Bchool in Futtehpore, and when on the departure of Dr. 
Madden that school was disbanded, Gopi Nath Nundy was 
invited by Mr. Wilson to accompany him to Futtehgurh. 

In January, 1843, the Eev. Henry E,. Wilson visited 
Mainpuri and its neighborhood, chiefly in reference to 
the establishing of a mission station in that part of 
the field. He brought back a favorable report and 
accordingly the Rev. J. L. and Mrs. Scott were appointed 
by the mission to open work in Mainpuri. They left 
Futtehgurh for their new field in November, 1843. The 
civil surgeon, Dr. Guise, gave them a most cordial welcome, 
not only to the station, but to his own house, where they 
remained until the end of December, when the house they 
had engaged was ready to receive them. Dr. Guise, a 
few months before the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Scott, had 
opened a school for heathen boys, and this he transferred 



( 115 ) 

to the care of Mr. Scott, who found it necessary, as the 
school rapidly increased in numbers, to erect a building 
for its accommodation. The Bev, J. J. and Mrs. Walsh, 
both of Newburgh, N. Y., left America in the autumn of 
1843, sailing- for Calcutta in the ship " Gentoo," and 
arriving in India early the following year. They were 
stationed in Futtehgurh until some time during the year 
]845, when the Rev. H. E. Wilson was obliged with his 
family to return to America on account of the failing 
health of Mrs. Wilson, and Mr. and Mrs. Walsh tlien found 
a home and work in the new station of Mainpuri. The 
orphanage bad become a responsible charge, requiring 
the superintedence of a missionary of some experience, and 
at the request of the mission, Mr. and Mrs. Scott, after the 
departure of Mr, Wilson, returned to Futtehgurh, to take 
charge of that institution. A parcel of land conveniently 
situated had been made over to the mission on generous 
terms by the Government, and upon this the married 
orphans were settled. To provide for their employment 
and maintenance the manufacture of tents was added to the 
carpet weaving industry, and this new department of labor 
proved for a time very remunerative. 

In October, 1844, the seat of Government was transferred 
from Allahabad to Agra. This transfer removed many 
English friends, who had rendered most efficient aid to 
the work of the mission in Allahabad, and the sup]3ort and 
sympathy of these friends were much missed. A year after 
the transfer of Government to Agra, it was decided to 
begin mission work at the new capital. The missionaries 
were led to this decision not only because the field was a 
large and important one, but the friends who had so gener- 
ously aided them in Allahabad assured them that in Agra 
the same help and sympathy would be extended to them. 

The Rev. James AVilson of Allahabad, and the Rev. J. C. 
Rankin of Futtehgurh, were appointed by the mission to 
begin work at the new station. About this time the 
North India Bible Society was organized, with head-quar- 
ters at Agra, and Mr. Wilson was elected its first secretary. 

The year 1845 is memorable as the year in which the 
first Synod was held in India. The place of meeting was 
Futtehgurh, and the first session was held on the loth of 
November, in the chapel of the orphanage. The opening 



( 116 ) 

sermon was preached by the Kev. James Wilson, the senior 
missionary present, from I. Timothy 4 : 14. Mr. Wilson 
was elected moderator, and Mr. Scott stated clerk. The 
Lord's Supper wa* celebrated on the Sabbath, the llev. J. E. 
Freeman administering the ordinance, assisted by the Rev. 
Gopi Nath Nundy. 

During- the year 1845 Q-overnment decided to discon- 
tinue its school in the city of Furrukhabad. and by order 
of the Lieutenant Governor, the lion. J. Thomason, tlie 
books, maps and school furniture were made over to 
the mission for use in its school. At this time the mission 
school was transferred from its eonfiued quarters to the 
large and commodious building formerly occupied by the 
Government school. 

In December, 1845, three missionaries with heavy hearts 
turned their faces homewards, the llev. J. M. Jamieson, 
who had lost his wife after a brief illness, Mrs. Craig with 
her fatherless children, and Miss Vanderveer with impair- 
ed health, not expecting to return. It is due to Miss 
Vanderveer to say that she came to India at her own 
charges. 

After the transfer of Rev. James Wilson to Agra, the 
Rev. J. E. Freeman was installed pastor of the Church at 
Allahabad, the installation taking place on the first of 
April, 184G. The missionaries of Allahabad about this 
time began to hold services in the Blind and Leper Asy- 
lum, this work having previously been carried on by the 
Baptist agent, the Rev. Mr. Mcintosh. 

Besides the chapels in the Chauk and in Kydganj, a chapel 
had been built in Kutra, Allahabad, chiefly through the 
energetic etl'orts of the Rev. Joseph Warren, to whom was 
committed the pastoral care of the native congregation wor- 
shipping atKutra. The church at the Jumna, Allahabad, was 
dedicated on the first of January, 1847, with services both 
in English and Hindustani. The Rev. J.Warren presided, 
and conducted the opening exercises, the Rev. J. E Free- 
man offered the dedicatory prayer in English, and the Rev. 
J. Owen preached in Hindustani. The building cost 
Rs. 5,832, and of this sum. Rs. 3.917, were contributed by 
friends in India. At this date, there had been admitted to 
the communion of the Church sixty-four persons, fifty- one 
of this number on profession of their faith. 



( 117 ) 

In October, 1846, the Government school in Allahabad 
was relinquished, and leave -granted to the mission to oc- 
cupy the G-overnment school building-, and to make use of 
the school furniture and library. When the mission 
received this institution from the local committee of pub- 
lic instruction, sixty or seventy pupils were in attendance, 
and all in alarm, as it had been rumored throughout the 
city that force was now to be employed in making 
Christians ; and many in consequence left the school. 
There was a strong prejudice amongst the pupils against 
the use of the Bible, as it had been excluded from the 
Government school. After a few days, however, the first 
class, reading Milton's "Paradise Lost," and not understand- 
ing the allusions to man's first act of disobedience, asked 
permission to examine the Bible account of man's fall; and 
the Bible was thus gradually introduced into all the classes. 
Two months after the school had passed into the care o£ 
the mission, an examination was held, and every class had 
made a beginning in Bible study. The missionaries at that 
time engaged in the school were the Rev. Messrs Owen 
and Wray. During this year, 1846, Mr. Owen writes, 
*' Railway projects are commencing, engineers having been 
Bent out from London to survey routes from Calcutta to the 
North West;" and then he adds, "A magnetic telegraph 
■will likely be established." 

On the 12th of July, 1846, the Eev. Messrs J. H. 
Morrison, A H Seeley and David Irving, with their wives, 
and Mr. R. M. Munnis, embarked at Boston for Calcutta, 
where they arrived near the close of the year. Mr. Morri- 
son's destination was the Lodiana Mission, and the other 
members of the party were appointed to the Furrukhabad 
Mission. During the year 1847 the health of Mrs. Scott 
BO declined, that she was ordered by her physician to the 
hills. The change failing to bring the desired relief, in 
November of the same year Mrs. Scott, with her two little 
daughters, and a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Freeman, set 
out on her return to America. Though very feeble in 
health, realizing how much her husband was needed at his 
post, she urged him to remain behind. We know the 
result of that sad journey. The loving wife, the devoted 
mother, the ardent missionary, died before the voyage 
was completed, and the motherless children continued the 



( 118 ) 

journey, oared for by stranger hands, Mr. Scott for 
three years louger continued to have the care of the indus- 
trial and fiuancial departments of the Christian village of 
Rakha. Of this period of his life, Mr. Scott says, " It has 
been a time of trial, perplexity, suffering, and sore bereave- 
ment, during which I have, in the midst of many dis- 
couragements, been endeavoring to do my part in the 
external service of the sanctuary." Anxious, if possible, 
to make the Christian village self-supporting, to the 
manufacture of tents, and of carpets, had been added the 
manufacture of saltpetre. This last venture proved a 
failure financially, the experiment " netting an actual loss 
of lis. 2,500, and the year which opened so auspiciously, 
closed with a pathetic appeal to the friends of the institu- 
tion for help. This appeal brought into the depleted 
treasury funds more than sufficient to make up the loss the 
mission had sustained." 

Mr. and Mrs. Irving spent several months after their arri- 
val in connection with the orphanage at Futtehgurh. It was 
then arranged that Mr. and Mrs. McAuley should succeed 
them, Mrs. McAuley having charge of the girls, and Mr. 
McAuley the educational department in general. In the 
year 1848 the Rev. A. A. and Mrs. Hodge arrived in 
India from America, and were appointed to Allahabad, On 
the 13th of October of the same year, Mr. J. F. Ullmann 
was licensed to preach the Gospel, by the Presbytery of 
Furrukhabad. He was ordained by the same Presbytery 
on the 19th of October, 1849, and soon afterwards sailed for 
Germany. 

The second meeting of Synod was held in Agra in 
December, 1848, and we read that there were thirteen 
sessions. The meetings were held in the Bible Depository, 
the Rev. John Newton, moderator. 

The year 1849 was in some respects a sad one in the 
mission. Early in the year Mr. and Mrs. Irving were 
compelled to return to America because of the continued ill 
health of Airs. Irving. Mr. and Mrs. Wray soon followed, 
ill health being in their case also the cause. On the 9tli of 
August, Mrs. Freeman, the wife of the Rev. John E. Free- 
man, died suddenly at Allahabad, in the thirty-fourth year 
of her age. Mrs. Freeman was carried to the grave by 
Christian natives, some of whom she had herself instructed 



( 119 ) 

in the boys' orphan school. Mrs. Freeman was distin- 
guished for great geuthmess of character. Mrs. Scott was 
remarkable ibr great firmness and decision of character, 
shrinking not from any sacrifice that duty seemed to demand. 
While in feeble health she made a journey to the hills alone 
with her infant sou, travelling a distance of five hundred 
miles by *' dawk" in ten nights. When her physicians 
advised her to return to America, she determined to go 
alone, because she felt that her husband was required at 
his post. When partiug from her husband, she said, " I 
trust that we shall meet again here below, but if not, it 
will all be ordered aright by our covenant- keeping God." 
Mr. and Mrs. Freeman accompanied Mrs. Scott to Calcutta, 
leaving in her care their daughter. As Mrs. Freeman 
was taking her little daughter in her arms for a last 
embrace, Mrs. Scott pressed her hand, and said, " Trust 
ye in the Lord forever, for in the Lord Jehovah is everlasting 
strength." "This," she added, " has ever been my motto, 
and I have never trusted in vain." Thus they parted, 
those two dear saints of the Lord, soon to be reunited. Mr. 
Scott, in a letter to Mr. Freeman, after the death of Mrs. 
Freeman, said of her, " If I were to characterize her by any 
word, I would say that she was a peace-maker." Not long 
after the death of his wife, Mr. Freeman, on account of 
impaired health, returned to America. 

In 1850, Babu John Hari was licensed to preach the 
Gospel by the Presbytery of Allahabad. The parents of 
John Hari were Mohammedans and were in Dinapore when 
Henry Martyn was chaplain of that station. They made a 
profession of Christianity at that time, and were baptized 
by Mr. Martyn. The father took the name of Henry, from 
love to his spiritual guide, but was afterwards familiarly 
called Hari. The son was baptized in infancy and named 
John, and for the sake of distinction was called John Hari. 
He became most useful in the mission. The Bev. J. Warren 
writing of him says, " He is the peace-maker, the arbitrator, 
the father of all my establishment." He was also extremely 
useful in work connected with the press, and rendered valu- 
able aid in translating. 

The press continued to increase in importance as an agency 
in mission work, issuing many and very valuable works. 
Two young men were received into the mission Church, on 

16 



( 120 ) 

profession of their faith, in the year 1850, and one of these 
testified that he had been led to give attention to serious 
things by reading Mr, Warren's translation of Flavel's 
" Fountain of Life." 

The press was not only constantly employed, but was 
ambitious in its enterprises issuing publications not only 
in English and in several of the vernaculars of the country, 
but in Hebrew and Grreek as well. A type foundry had 
also been added, which greatly increased the efficiency of 
the press. Arduous as were the duties connected with the 
management of the press, they did not absorb all the time 
or attention of Mr. Warren, who rendered cheerful and 
efficient aid in other departments of mission work. 

Early in the year 1850, the liev. A. A. Hodge with his 
family left India for America, because of the failure of the 
health of Mrs. Hodge. Mr. Munnis, who had been ordained by 
the Presbytery of Furrukhabud, was then transferred from 
Mainpuri to Allahabad. In August 1850, a large party of 
missionaries left America for India, the Kev. Robert S. Ful- 
lerton and wife, the Rev. D. Elliott Campbell and wife, the 
Rev. Lawrence Hay and wife, the Rev. H. W. Shaw and wife, 
and the Rev. James H. Orbison. This party reached Cal- 
cutta, December 30th, 1850. Messrs. Hay and Shaw 
were appointed to Allahabad, Mr. and Mrs. Fullerton to 
Mainpuri, Mr. and Mrs. Campbell to Futtehgurh, and Mr. 
Orbison to the Lodiana mission. In Marcli 1851, the Rev. 
R. M. Munnis was married to Mrs. Fannie Mandal, widow 
of Dr. James Mandal. Early in the year 1851, the Rev. 
Messrs. James Wilson and W. H. McAuley sailed from 
Calcutta for America. Mr. Wilson had labored continu- 
ously in India for nearly seventeen years, and his constitu- 
tion had become impaired. Mr. McAuley was also suffer- 
ing from ill health. In consequence of the withdrawal of 
these brethren from the field, Mr. Walsh was transferred 
from Mainpuri to Futtehgurh, and Mr. Scott from Futteh- 
gurh to Agra. After his settlement in Agra Mr. Scott, 
in addition to his otlier duties, accepted the position of 
secretary of the North India Bible Society, the departure 
of Mr. Wilson for America having left that post vacant. 
The Bible Society's house, situated in one corner of the 
mission compound, was also used for the purposes of 
the Tract Society. Mr. Scott remained in Agra until the 



( 121 ) 

9tli of December, 1851, when he turned his face toward 
America, feeling- that his motherless children required his 
care. When it had been decided that Mr. Scott should return 
to America, Mr. Wai-ren was transferred from Allahabad 
to Agra, setting out for this place in October, and Mr. Hay- 
succeeded him in themanagement of the press at Allahabad. 
After his arrival in Agra, Mr. Warren was elected secre- 
tary of the Bible Society in place of Mr. Scott. The office 
was then as now " one of labor and love, not of salary." 
The Bible Society was doing a noble work in promoting the 
translation, the revision, the printing and the circulation 
of the Sacred Scriptures, and our missionaries did not hesi- 
tate to accept the responsible trust, though the duties of the 
office added much to their labors. 

The Rev. J. E. and Mrs. Freeman sailed from Boston 
for Calcutta on the 10th of July, 1851 ; and the Rev. J. F. 
and Mrs. Ullmann from London for Calcutta on the 8th of 
the same month. Both these missionaries were appointed 
to the Furrukhabad Mission, Mr. Ullmann to Futtehgurh 
and Mr. Freeman to Mainpuri. 

The high school in Allahabad constantly grew in favor, 
and at this time numbered three hundred pupils. Mr. 
Owen, in charge of the school, mentions a young civilian, Mr. 
Richard Temple,* who was present at one of the examinations 
of the school, took part in the exercises, and expressed 
himself as delighted with the attainments of the pupils. 

The removal of the Government offices to Agra brought 
to that city a large European and Eurasian population. 
When it was occupied by our mission as a station, one of 
the imperative needs of the place was felt to be that of a 
good English school. Mr. Wilson was much interested 
in the matter, but was obliged to return to America before 
even a beginning had been made. After his removal to 
Agra, Mr. Scott wrote and printed a pamphlet on the 
subject, which was circulated amongst all the missionaries 
of our Society in India, nearly all of whom approved of the 
proposed scheme, the more especially as the Lieutenant 
Governor, the Hon. James Thomason, had urged the mission 
to open a school in Agra, and they were therefore certain 
of his co-operation. Thus encoui'aged, Mr. Scott sent the 



•Afterwards Sir Richard Temple, Governor of Bombay. 



( 122 ) 

plan to the Board in America. The scheme received 
the sanction of this body, and Mr. and Mrs. Fullerton were 
transferred from Mainpuri to Agra,to engage in this en terprise, 
the Board intimating that some one would be sent from Amer- 
ica to assist them. Mr. Fullerton removed with his family to 
Agra in February, lSo2, and the school was opened on the 
second of the following March, in a small hired bungalow 
near the Presbyterian Church, with an attendance of six 
pupils. For the use of the school, as well as for a residence 
tor Mr. Fullerton and his family, a large house was pur- 
chased. Toward the cost of this property, the Lieuten- 
ant Governor contributed lis. 1,000. Other friends 
contributed generously, and soon the whole amount waa 
Bubscribed. The school so rapidly grew in favor, that a 
year after its small beginning, the building purchased was 
found too small for both a school and a residence. The Rev. 
li. F Williams, an old and valued friend of Mr. Fullerton, 
joined the workers at Agra, and at Mr. Fullerton's request 
was made principal of the school. The need of a school 
for girls was pressing, and Mrs. Fullerton resolved to 
make a beginning. She secured the aid of a teacher, and 
opened a private school of fifteen pupils. Some of the 
excellent ladies of Agra were much interested in this move- 
ment, and formed a oommitteo to aid in the work, secured 
donations and raised subscriptions. The school steadily 
increased in numbers, as well as efficiency, until a separate 
building was required. Again the Lieutenant Governor 
rendered generous aid ; and many others lent a helping 
hand. The amount contributed by the English congrega- 
tion, in a'cknowledgment of the Kev. J. Warren's services, 
was applied to this object, and a house opposite the boys' 
school was purchased for a girls' school and a residence for 
Mr. Fullerton and his family. Mr. Warren was very 
active in devising ways and means for procuring funds for 
these schools ; and he tells us, in his interesting volume, 
♦' Missionary Life in North India," that his importunity 
and zeal in this regard won for him the title of " the 
biggest beggar in India." The girls' school was designed 
for boarders as well as day scholars. The labor and care 
involved in such an undertaking Mrs. Fullerton carried 
bravely. It was an arduous work, but was not without 
its reward. Not only was Mrs. Fullerton permitted to 



( l''^3 ) 

see a " marvellous transformation of character" in many 
of her pupils, hut some amoug the number gave their 
hearts to the Saviour ; and some of them are still living to 
honor their Christian profession, having labored faithfully 
for the Master. Mrs. Adam Anthony, one of the pupils 
educated in this school, after her marriage opened in her 
own house the first school for native girls in Agra, herself 
meeting all the expenses. 

On the 9th of May, 1853, after a short illness, Mrs. Seeley 
died at Futtehgurh. Death, which came so suddenly to 
this handmaid of the Lord, brought no fears. " Come 
Lord Jesus," she frequently exclaimed, as she calmly waited 
for her departure, after she had bade adieu to the loved 
ones about her, and had sent affectionate messages to absent 
friends. The death of Mrs. Seeley was a great loss, not 
only to her family, but to the mission, as she was devoted 
to her work and endeared to her associates. She was laid 
to rest in the mission cemetery at Futtehgurh, the first 
missionary "honored with a burial there." Beside her sleep 
the little ones Grod called to himself from some of the 
mission households, as well as many Christian natives. 
Early in 1854, Mr. Seeley, whose health was greatly impaired, 
returned to America with his motherless children. Of this 
event, Mr. Freeman writes, " By brother Seeley's departure 
we lose one of our best men, whose place will not easily be 
supplied." 

Mission work was begun in the station of Futtehpore in 
the year 1853, the Rev. Gropi Nath Nundy in charge. During 
the same year Banda was made an out-station of the mission, 
an English resident of the place offering to defray all the ex- 
penses connected with a school in the city. Two Christians 
from Allahabad were accordingly sent to open work there. 

The Rev. J. L. Scott, during his sojourn in America, was 
married to Miss E. Jane Foster, and on the 24th of October, 
1853, with his wife sailed from Boston for India. Upon 
their arrival they were stationed at Agra. Mr. Scott took 
charge of the Hindustani services, while Mr. Fullerton was 
responsible for the English services. Mrs. Scott was able to 
render most efficient aid to Mrs. Fullerton in the manage- 
ment of the girls' school. 

In November, 1855, the Rev. Messrs. David llerron, 
William Calderwood, Isador Lowenthal, Albert 0. Johnson, 



( 124 ) 

and wife, and Miss Browiiiug-, arrived in Calcutta. Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson and Miss Browning were appointed to the Fur- 
rukhabad Mission, Mr. and Mrs. Jolinson to the station of 
Futtehgurh, and Miss Browning to Agra; the other members 
of the party to tlie Lodiana Mission. During the same 
year Mr. !Shaw and his family returned to America, on 
account of the failure of Mrs. Shaw's health. Mrs. Owen 
also left India during this year, in order to make arrange- 
ments at home for the education of her little son. Until his 
departure for America, Mr. Shaw labored in connection 
with the high school in Allahabad, numbering at that 
time 550 pupils. After his transfer to Allahabad from 
Mainpuri, Mr. Munnis was also connected with the high 
school, Mr. Owen's time being chiefly employed in the 
work of Scripture translation. 

On the 15th of December, 1855, the first Annual Meeting 
was held, embracing the members of the several stations, 
each station, until this time, having been regarded as a 
separate mission. At this meeting it M-as resolved to unite 
the several stations, the whole to be known as the Furrukha- 
bad Mission. The meeting lasted ten days, and it is on 
record that the occasion was a very delightful one. Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson and Miss Browning arrived in time to be 
present at this meeting. 

During the year 1855 an effort was made to raise funds 
for the erection of a substantial church building at Rakha, 
and for this object the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh sent a 
donation of lis. 500, promising a larger amount, should it 
be required. The Maharajah also contributed means for 
the support of ten village schools. The high school in 
Furrukhabad was in a flourishing condition, and beside the 
school connected with the orphan asylum, there was a Can- 
tonment school for boys, one for girls, four bazar schools for 
boys, as well as schools in the city for girls. 

The chui'ch at llakha was completed and dedicated in the 
autumn of 1856, friends in India having contributed about 
Rs. 6,000 toward the erection of the new building. In the 
erection of this pleasant sanctuary Mr. Walsh had been 
deeply interested. Soon after its dedication, he returned 
with his family to America, accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. 
Jamieson. The party reached Calcutta in time to welcome 
the Rev. Robert McMullin and wife, who had sailed from 



( 125 ) 

Boston in September. The new missionaries were appointed to 
Futtehgurh, and reached their station in February. Upon 
Mr. Walsh's return to America, Mr. Freeman was 
appointed to succeed him in the orphanage. Mr. Ullmann 
was at this time transferred to Mainpuri, Mr. Johnson 
taking charge of the Furrukhabad high school, which had 
been in Mr. Ullmann's care. In April 1856, the new 
school building in Mainpuri, planned and built by Mr. 
Freeman, was ready for occupancy. This building had 
been erected at a cost of between four and five thousand 
rupees, and this amount had been subscribed chiefly by 
European friends in India Before entering the new build- 
ing, the fee-paying system was adopted for the first time 
in Mainpuri. 

The year 1857 opened auspiciously, and no one of the 
busy and hopeful mission band dreamed how darkly it 
would close. The schools were very prosperous, the press 
was doing a noble work, translation work was being vigor- 
ously prosecuted, and during the cold season of 1856 — 57, 
the brethren privileged to make tours in the district 
found unusual encouragement in their work. Books were 
eagerly sought, and there seemed unwonted interest in the 
Gospel message. Bat the letters sent to America in May 
carried the startling tidings of the mutiny among the 
troops in Meerut, and of the increasing disaffection in 
native regiments in other cities in North India. On June 
2nd, Mr. McMullin wrote of the " danger now so immi- 
nent," and on June 3rd, Mr. Ullmann wrote from Agra 
that he and his family "had fled for their lives." The 
missionaries in Agra, together with the children boarding 
in the schools, took refuge in the fort. From the ram- 
parts Mr. Fullerton saw the first torch of the incendiary 
applied to the buildings occupied by Europeans. The 
normal school for the education of native teachers was 
first fired ; and in a short time five miles of the station 
were in flames. People continued to flock into the fort 
for protection, until Mr. Scott wrote, " We have a resident 
population of 6,000, and many more during the day." Here 
the wounded were brought, and the missionaries were able 
to render much valuable aid in caring for the suffering. 
At this time Mr. Hay was in Calcutta, whither he had 
gone with his family to embark for America. Mr. Owen 



( 12C ) 

had made the journey to Calcutta to meet his wife, on 
her returu from America ; and with Mr. Owen was Mr. 
Muuuis, and J. J Caleb, a Scripture reader of Allahabad. 
Tlie fort in Allahabad afforded protection to Europeans from 
the city and vicinity. The city was nine days in the hands 
of the rebels, who plundered and burned many of its dwell- 
ings, and inflicted great damage upon its churches and the 
mission press, but the Christians escaped massacre. AVhile 
the missionaries in Allahabad and Agra had found refuge 
within the forts of these cities, their hearts wore full of 
anxiety concerning their dear missionary friends in Futteh- 
gurh. The tidings that came at length were of the saddest. 
A boat had been secured in which they thought it possible 
they might escape to Cawnpore ; but before they embarked 
they gathered around them the little band of Christian 
natives, and Mr. Campbell addressed them, telling them 
that while they themselves entertained but faint hopes that 
they could escape the vengeance of tiieir enemies, the 
Christians, who were natives of the country, might perhaps 
find refuge in the villages ; and for their further encour- 
agement, he said, " I know that the Church of Christ in 
India will remain, and that even the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against it." He then exhorted them to be stead- 
fast, and laid his hands upon their heads in blessing. 
A final farewell it proved, for tlie boat upon which that 
true-hearted band embarked, bore them to their death. 

Rev. Gropi Nath Nundy and his family escaped from Fut- 
tehpore, but only to fall into the hands of the mutineers, and 
to suffer much before they were finally released. 

The mission chapel in Mainpuri was left a ruin, the 
mission house was plundered and burned, the grounds 
appropriated by the Kaja and zamindars, and rented for 
cultivation for the sum of Rs. 62 per year. The new 
school building escaped the general destruction, as it suited 
the Raja, during this reign of terror, to use it as his court 
of jitntice ! After the supremacy of the English had been 
restored, some of the native Christians, who had made their 
way to Cawnpore, returned to Futtehgurh, and finding no 
one to take an interest in them, wrote to Agra, asking one 
of the missionaries there to come to them. It was decided 
that Mr. Fullerton should go over. The road between 
Agra and Futtehgurh was not considered safe, and Mr. 



( 127 ) 

Fullerton therefore gladly accepted a seat in the private 
carriage of Mr. Raikes, then civil Commissioner at Agra, 
who was travelling to Futtehgurh under the protection of an 
armed escort. Mr. FuUerton's heart was greatly saddened 
by the desolation in Mainpuri, a place endeared to him as 
his first home in India. On reaching Futtehgurh, he found 
it the head-quarters of the Commander-in-Chief ; ten thou- 
sand British soldiers, and nearly as many camp-followers 
were encamped there ; while oxen, buffaloes, horses, camels, 
elephants, artillery wagons, baggage wagons, and pri- 
vate conveyances, filled every available spot. The mission 
bungalows, the old church, tent factory and Christian 
village were all in ruin. The walls and spire of the 
new church were still standing, but the roof had been 
destroyed, and everything movable taken away. The 
orphanage was filled with oxen, the drawing-room of one 
of the bungalows held an elephant, and other parts of the 
building were used as stables for oxen. Even the little 
cemetery had not escaped desecration. Mr. Fullerton 
found it filled "udth oxen, and the tombs marred and 
broken. Mr. Fullerton reached Futtehgurh on Saturday 
evening, but did not succeed in finding any of the Chris- 
tian natives until the evening of the following day. He 
then gathered around him the little band, prayed with 
them, read the 103rd Psalm, and together they sang the 
twenty-third Psalm. These faithful ones had endured 
much, and suffered the loss of all things. The blind girls 
from the orphan asylum, and one boy — a leper and blind — 
were sometimes days and nights together without shelter, 
and had the most scanty fare, yet only one had died. Mr. 
Fullerton did not find all whom he sought. Some had 
gone to wear the martyr's crown. Prominent among this 
number was Dhokal Parshad, the head-master of the mis- 
sion school at Furrukhabad. When he and his family fell 
into the hands of the mutineers, and life and liberty were 
offered if he would renounce Christianity, he answered, 
"What is my life, that I should deny my Saviour ? I have 
never done so since the day I first believed on him, and by 
the grace of God, come what may, I never will." When a 
sepoy, sword in hand, approached him, he meekly bowed, 
and his head was severed from his body by a single blow. 
His wife and children were also put to death. " I have not 

17 



( 128 ) 

heard of a single case of apostasy," Mr. FuUerton wrote 
at the time. 

Anxious to assist the native Christians, who were in 
circumstances of great need, Mr. FuUerton, in his con- 
cern for them, was unmindful of his own wants. l)r. 
Farquahar, afterward surgeon to Lord Lawrence, hear- 
ing of Mr. FuUerton's arrival, called to see him about 
dinner time, and found him in a little hut, dining on pota- 
toes. " How is this ?" he asked, and Mr. FuUerton was 
forced to acknowledge that he had found so many destitute 
Christians, for whom he felt it necessary to provide, that 
he could afford nothing better. Dr. Farquahar at once 
rode to the camp, told his brother officers what he had seen, 
and soon Mr. FuUerton had enough both for his own and 
his people's needs. While in Futtehgurh Mr. FuUerton 
was able to find employment for many of the Christians. 

Babu Prem Masih recovered money, which a Hindu had 
buried for him at the outbreak of the mutiny, and he im- 
mediately began the manufacture of tents, employing the 
Christians who were without situations. John F. Houston, 
catechist, taught a school for the little community, and 
Robert Breckenridge, another native helper, cared for the 
blind. The Sabbath services they conducted in turn. 

Early in 1858, a conference was held in Agra, which was 
attended by most of the surviving missionaries. It was then 
decided that Messrs. Scott and FuUerton should remove to 
Futtehgurh and Furrukhabad respectively, and Mr. Wil- 
liams to Allahabad. Mr. Ullmann had been requested by the 
Bible Society to proceed to England, to superintend the 
printing of the New Testament in Hindi, and his missionary 
brethren concurring in this, accompanied by his family, he 
sailed from Bombay April 24th, 1858. Mr. Owen, accompani- 
ed by Mrs. Owen, returned to Allahabad the same month. Mr. 
Munnis also returned about the same time. The high school 
at Allahabad opened with two hundred pupils. The Rev. 
Gopi Nath Nundy returned to Futtehpore, and continued 
his labors there. Mainpuri was occupied by native laborers, 
and the school opened with seventy pupils in attendance. 
Messrs. Scott and FuUerton reached Futtehgurh on the 29th 
of March, 1858, and on the 5th of May, Mr. Scott wrote, 
•' We have twelve or fifteen candidates for baptism, one of 
these a Brahmin, Mohun Lai by name." 



( 129 ) 

The Eev. J. J. Walsh, and the Eev. Augustus and Mrs. 
Brodhead sailed from Boston in the ship " Kockall" for 
Calcutta on the 17th of September, 1858. On the 23rd 
of September, the ship encountered a heavy gale, which so 
disabled her, that she was brought back to Boston for re- 
pairs. When the party re-embarked on the 8th of Novem- 
ber, Mrs. Walsh having been able to make satisfactory 
arrangements for the education of their children, for whose 
sake she had previously remained behind, accompanied her 
husband. 

On the 17th of September, Mr. Scott wrote from Futteh- 
gurh, "Last Sabbath we celebrated the Lord's Supper, and 
sixty-five communicants sat down to the table, nearly as 
large a number as we ever had." The following Januai-y, 
Mr. Scott wrote, " We have resolved to restore the old 
mission premises, and we have begun to restore two of the 
houses, Mr. FuUerton building one at Barhpur, and I one 
at Eakha." The high school was re-opened with 294 
pupils. In February, 1859, the missionaries began a Sab- 
bath evening service in the building occupied by the girls* 
school ; and in May, a communion service was held in a 
large upper room. The occasion was one of deep interest, 
as it was the first time that in the city of Furrukhabad 
this ordinance had been administered. In June of this 
year, Mr. Fullerton wrote, " The schools are more prosper- 
ous than ever before, about 500 being under instruction." 

Messrs. Walsh and Brodhead, with their wives, reached 
Allahabad July 18th, 1859. The mission meeting was 
held in the autumn of that year in Futtehgurh, and it was 
at that time decided that Mr. Owen should be transferred 
from Allahabad to Agra, and that Mr. Munnis should hence- 
forth prosecute his labors in connection with the Lodiana 
Mission. Mr. and Mrs. Walsh were stationed at Allahabad, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Brodhead at Mainpuri. 

At the mission meeting held the following year it was 
resolved to recommend the Board to take up the stations of 
Alligurh and Etawah, and Mr. Fullerton was appointed by 
the mission to write to the Board on the subject. 

The Rev. B. D. Wyckofl[, and the Rev. W. F. Johnson, 
a younger brother of the martyred missionary — the Rev. 
A. O. Johnson — , sailed from Boston on the 28th of July, 
1860, and arrived in Calcutta near the close of the year. 



( 130 ) 

Both of these brethren were accompanied by their wives. 
For a time they were etatioued at Allahabad. 

In the autumn of 1860, Air. Brodhead reported the mission 
buildings in Maiupuri as nearly restored, and in {Septem- 
ber, the little baud of Christians assembled in the mission 
chapel for divine service for the first time since the mutiny. 
In November of the same year, Mr. Scott baptized Mohuu 
Lai at Futtehgurh. At the close of this year, Mr. Williams 
was compelled by the failure of his health to return to 
America. Mr. and Mrs. UUmann returned to India from 
England in the beginning of 1861, and joined Mr. Fullerton 
at Furrukhabad. The Rakha church, by this time restored, 
was re-dedicated to the worship of God. The Christian 
community at Rakha numbered 180, and the communicants 
Beventy-five. Mr. and Mrs. Scott were in charge of this 
station. The Furrukhabad high school was in a flourishing 
condition, having in attendance 335 pupils. Ishwari Das, 
•who had rendered most efficient service in connection with 
this school, was in 1862, compelled by partial failure of 
his eyesight to relinquish his duties. 

In November, 1862, the mission meeting was held in 
Mainpuri. It was then decided that the Rev. J. Owen should 
be transferred to Allahabad, and that the Rev. A. Brodhead 
should be transferred from Mainpuri to Furrukhabad. The 
Rev. B. D. Wyckoff was stationed at Mainpuri, and the 
Rev. W. F. Johnson at Futtehpore. The latter station had 
been left vacant by the death of the pastor of the Chris- 
tian flock, the Rev. Gopi Nath Nundy. In March 1861, 
it had become necessary that he should submit to a severe 
surgical operation, as affording the only hope of saving 
his life. " I am not afraid to die," he said, when the 
hour of trial came ; " I can trust that Jesus whom I have 
so often preached to others." The operation proved fatal, 
and he expired on the morning of the 16th of March. 

It was decided at the meeting in Mainpuri that the Rev. 
J. F. UUmann should take charge of the new station, Etawah, 
and that the Rev. Edward Saj^re, then on his way to India, 
should be associated with the Rev. A. Brodhead in the work 
at Furrukhabad. 

In the report sent home by the missionaries for the year 
1862, they were able to make the encouraging statement that 
the number of native Chi'istians in the North- West Prov- 



( 131 ) 

inces and Oudh had more than doubled within the last 
decade, notwithstanding- the mutiny. In April 1863, Mr. 
Walsh proceeded to America, on account of ill health. Du- 
ring his absence the charge of the blind and leper asylum 
devolved upon Mrs. Walsh, as Mr. Owen did not arrive 
from Agra until after the departure of Mr. Walsh, and Mrs. 
Walsh was thus for a time the only missionary of our society 
left in Allahabad. The chapels in the Chauk and Kydganj 
had before this time been removed, as the sites were required 
for Grovernment purposes, but there were then, as now, two 
Christian congregations, one at the Jumna, and one at 
Kutra. During the absence of Mr. Walsh, before the 
arrival of Mr. Owen, John Hari and Yunas Singh, both 
licentiates, conducted services in the two congregations. The 
Saturday evening prayer-meeting at Kutra was conducted 
by J. J. Caleb, and the prayer-meeting at the Jumna by 
Paul Qaim Khan. The high school at the Jumna was 
in charge of Yunas Singh. The year 1863 was a trying one 
for the mission. At the opening of the hot season, Mr. 
Fullerton was obliged, on account of seriously impaired 
health, to leave Furrukbabad for Landour ; and at the end of 
June, Mr. Scott with his family was forced by illness to 
hasten to the hills. Though the health of these brethren 
improved by a sojourn in Landour, yet it was not consid- 
ered wise for either to resume work in the plains, and they 
were accordingly released by the mission from the confining 
duties of their station, and recommended to spend a part of 
the ensuing year at Landour. During this time, when able 
to labor, Mr. Scott turned his attention to the preparation 
of a commentary on the New Testament, a w^ork much needed 
by the infant Church. A part of this commentary was sent 
to press early in 1865. As the station of Dehra was left 
vacant in the beginning of 1864, by the return of Mr. 
Herron to America with his children, by agreement of the 
two missions, Mr. Fullerton was asked to take charge of 
that station. Here as everywhere Mr. Fullerton labored 
with untiring devotion, but as his health continued to 
decline, he began early in the following year to arrange for 
his return to America with his family. 

That journey to the home land was never made. Mr. 
Fullerton died at Landour on the 4th of October 1865! 
It had been his desire to revisit his native land, and' to see 



( 132 ) 

his family settled there, but whou lie felt that the Lord 
had ordered otherwise, he cheerfully acquiesced. He 
suffered much during his illness, but no word of murmur- 
ing ever escaped his lips. " All is peace," he frequently 
exclaimed, even in the midst of great suffering. He had 
numbered but forty-four years, when the Lord called him 
to himself. Mr. FuUerton was mourned not only by his 
family and his brethren of the mission, but he was also sin- 
cerely mourned by the people for whose welfare he had so 
earnestly labored. His missionary life had been spent 
in the stations of Mainpuri, Agra, Futtehgurh and Dehra, 
and in each station he had left a fragrant memory, and 
friends to mourn his loss among all classes in the commu- 
nity. Mrs. FuUerton with her children left India for 
America in January, 1866. 

The Kev. J. J. Walsh, accompanied by his danghter 
Marion, who was under appointment as a missionary, left 
New York for India in July, 1864. They reached Allaha- 
bad on the lyth of November. 

Mrs. Owen, wife of the Rev. Dr. Owen, died at Allahabad 
on the 13th of December. " She was sustained by the 
presence and grace of the Saviour, even to the last, ending 
her life in great peace. She enjoyed the respect and warm 
regard of her friends and missionary associates, and it was 
no doubt gain for her to die." 

At the mission meeting in the autumn of 1864, it was 
decided that the Rev.W. F. Johnson, should be transferred 
from Futtehpore to Futtehgurh, and the Kev. Edward Sayre 
from Furrukhabad to Futtehpore. Schools for girls had 
been opened in Mainpuri by Mrs. Wyckoff during the year 

1863, and these soon became so popular that at the close of 

1864, Mrs. Wyckoff could report ten schools for girls in 
the station of Mainpuri. 

The Rev. Messrs. S. 11. Kellogg and J. H. Meyers, 
with their wives, sailed from Boston for Calcutta Decem- 
ber 20th, 1864. Upon their arrival, Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg 
were stationed at Furrukhabad, while Mr. and Mrs. Meyers 
proceeded to Lodiaua, their appointed field of labor. The 
llev. J. M. and Mrs. Alexander sailed from Boston for 
India on the 4th of October, 1865, and arrived in Calcutta 
February 9th, 1866. They were appointed to Allahabad. 

The third Synod of India met in Ambala in November, 



( 133 ) 

1865. The opening sermon was preached by the Rev. J. 
Newton. Dr. Owen was elected moderator. Of the mem- 
bers present at this Synod, one had been in India thirty- 
one years ; one twenty-seven years ; two twenty-six years ; 
one twenty-five years ; one twenty-two years ; one seventeen 
years, and the remaining members from fifteen years, to a 
few months ; twelve Churches were represented ; and at 
that time within the bounds of the Synod the native minis- 
ters, catechists, teachers and colporteurs numbered in all 
one hundred and twenty. 

Miss Walsh was married February 5th, 1867, to the Rev. 
J. A. Lambert, of the London Missionary Society. In April 
of the same year, the Rev. J. L. Scott, with his family, left 
India for America, being compelled by failure of health to 
take this step. On the 16th of April, the Rev. J. Owen, 
D. D., was married at Allahabad to Mary Jane, daughter of 
D. C. Bell, Esq., Inspector- General of Hospitals, Bombay. 

On the 2nd of May, the Rev. Ishwari Das died in Fut- 
tehgiu'h. Ishwari Das was one of the orphan children made 
over to the Rev. H. R. Wilson by Dr. Madden, at Futteh- 
pore, and with the Christian village at Rakha almost his 
whole life had been associated. He accompanied Mr. Wil- 
son to America, and spent some time in that country. He 
was the author of several books, for one of which, his 
"Lectures on Theology," he received the prize offered by a 
learned Bengal civilian for the best work on Theology. 
He also took the prize offered for the best essay on Female 
Education. In every way Ishwari Das sought to be use- 
ful to his own people, and was in consequence greatly loved 
and respected by his countrymen. At the close of 1865, 
when the station of Futtehpore was left vacant by the 
transfer of the Rev. Edward Sayre and wife to Etawah, 
upon the departure to England of the Rev. J. F. and 
Mrs. Ullmann, Ishwari Das was selected to fill this res- 
ponsible post. A solemn ordination service was accord- 
ingly held, in the presence of a large and deeply interested 
congregation, and with bright hopes, this evangelist was 
sent forth to his new field ; but at the expiration of a year 
he returned to Futtehgurh with seriously impaired health, 
and after months of suffering passed peacefully away. One 
of the missionary brethren at Futtehgurh, writing of his 
illness, said, •' You will be pained to hear that our brother, 



( 134 ) 

the Rev. Ishwari Das, is at the point of death. He ia 
dying" in peace unspeakable." 

On the 18th of October, 1867, the Rev. E. M. Wherry 
and wife, the Rev. 0. B. Newton, and the Rev. Francis 
Heyl sailed from Boston in the ship "Zephyr" for Cal- 
cutta. Mr. ileyl was stationed at Mainpuri ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Wherry and Mr, Newton were destined for the Lodi- 
ana Mission. 

In July, 1868, Mrs. Walsh, who had been on a short 
visit to America, sailed for India, accompanied by two of 
her daughters. 

The first number of the " Makhzan i Masihi," a monthly 
religious magazine for native Christians, was issued in July, 
1868, under the editorial management of Rev. J. J. Walsh. 

The Rev. J. F. Ullmann returned to India from England 
in November, 1867, aud was stationed at Furrukhabad. The 
following July, he wrote, " There are sixteen young men 
in my theological class. They study with a will, and all 
are making progress." 

The Rev. T. S. Wynkoop embarked for India on the 
12th of November, 1868. Mr. Wynkoop had for four 
years been pastor of the Huntington Church, Presby- 
tery of Long Island. He was stationed at Allahabad. 
Some changes occurred in the mission in the autumn of 
1868. The Rev. B. D. Wyckoff, on account of impaired 
health, found it necessary to return to America with his 
family. Upon his departure, the Rev. J. M. Alexander 
was transferred to Mainpuri from Allahabad, and the Rev. 
A. Brodhead from Furrukhabad to Allahabad. 

The contributions to the Mission Boards in America 
had been materially lessened during the continuance of the 
Civil War, and near the close of 1868, the Rev. S. H. Kel- 
logg sent to the Foreign Mission Board in New York the 
sum of Rs.lOO, with the following explanation: — '"It affords 
me peculiar pleasure to remit this sum towards canceling 
the debt of the Board. Of this amount, ten rupees and four 
annas were given by Mohammedan aud Hindu teachers ia 
the high school ; the remainder, eighty nine rupees and twelve 
annas, is solely the contribution of our little Church, of about 
forty members, in the city." The Rakha Church, through 
the Rev. W. F. Johnson, subscribed $ 201,75 towards the 
eame object. From the Mainpuri Chiu'ch, through the Rev. 



( 135 ) 

B. D. Wyckoff, was received $ 125. European and native 
friends in Allahabad, through the Rev. J. J. Walsh, sent 
to America, to aid in canceling the debt, Rs. 862. 

The fourth meeting of the Synod of India was held in 
Saharanpore in December, 1868, and the sessions were full 
of interest. 

The Rev. J. Owen, D.D., after nearly twenty-eight years 
of continuous labor in India, left for America, via iScotland, 
early in 1869, having just completed for the Bible Society 
a second revision and edition of the Old Testament in Hin- 
di ; and also a commentary on Isaiah in the Urdu language 
for the American Tract Society. Miss Emma Walsh, who 
came to India w^ith her mother in November, 1868, died at 
Allahabad, after a very brief illness, on the 15th of August, 
1869, in the midst of happy preparations for a school for 
the daughters of the native Christians, and the orphan 
girls at Kutra. The sudden death of this young mission- 
ary, just as she was beginning her work for the Master 
in this country, was a sad loss, not only to her family, but 
to the mission. 

The Rev. A Brodhead left India for America in the 
summer of 1869, and on the journey kindly eared for 
Miss Beatty of Dehra, who with shattered health was 
retm-ning home. They reached New York on the 8th of 
October. On the 4th of September, the Rev. 0. W. For- 
man and family, accompanied by the Rev. T. Tracy, the 
Rev. A. P. Kelso, Miss Margaret Thompson and Miss 
Sarah Morrison, embarked at New York for India. Mr. 
Tracy upon his arrival was stationed at Furrukhabad. The 
Lodiana Mission was the destination of all the other mem- 
bers of the party. Early in 1869, the Rev. F. Heyl was 
transferred from Mainpuri to Allahabad. The Rev. E. and 
Mrs. Sayre, on account of the feeble state of Mrs. Sayre's 
health, were obliged to return to America, and the Rev. 
J. F. Ullmann was then transferred from Furrukhabad 
to Etawah. 

On the 12th of October, 1870, the Rev. A. Brodhead 
and wife embarked at New York for India. They were 
accompanied by a large party of missionaries coming to 
India for the first time, the Rev. Messrs. F. J. Newton and 
J. F. Holcomb, with their wives, the Rev. Messrs. J. J. 
Lucas, G. A. Seeley and Q-. W. Seiler, Miss Dickey and 

18 



( 136 ) 

Miss Craig. The two first named missionaries had been 
sent out to reiniorce the Lodiana Mission. Mr. Newton 
was a son of" the llev. John Newton, two of whose sons had 
previously entered upon mission work in India. Mr. llol- 
comb had left the pastorate of a Church in Athens, Ohio, 
having- been four years a pastor at home. Miss Craig-, whose 
destination was also the Lodiana Mission, was a daughter of 
Mr. James Craig, who died at Saharanpore on the 16th of 
August, 1845. The Hew. Messrs Gr. A. Seeley, and J. J. 
Lucas, and Miss Dickey were sent as a reinforcement to the 
Furrukhabad Mission. Mr. Seiler's destination was the 
Kolhapore Mission. The party landed at Bombay on the 
10th of December. Mr. and Mrs. Brodhead. and Mr. See- 
ley were appointed to Furrukhabad. With this station the 
childhood of Mr. Seeley had been associated, and here his 
mother had passed away. Mr. Luoas was stationed at 
Allahabad, and Miss Dickey at Mainpuri. 

While the workers in the field were cheered by the arri- 
val of so large a reinforcement, there came, almost at the 
same time, tidings of the death of Dr. Owen, who had 
left India but a few months before. Dr. Owen died in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, on the 14th of December, after an illness 
of three months. To his friends in America from his dying 
bed he sent this message : — " Tell them that I have never 
for one moment regretted that I went to India as a mis- 
sionary. I only regret that I was not more faithful." To 
the native Christians at Allahabad he sent a message, 
urging them to be "firm in the faith, always abounding 
in the work of the Lord." The death of a veteran in the 
service, so active and so efficient in the various departments 
of missionary labor, was deeply felt. He rests from his 
labors, but his works do follow him. 

The year 1870 is memorable as the year in which the 
"Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Presbyterian 
Church" was organized, with head-quarters at Philadelphia ; 
the ''Ladies' Home and Foreign Board of Missions," with 
head-quarters at New York ; and the " Woman's I'resby- 
terian Board of Missions of the North- West," with head- 
quarters at Chicago. 

The work in heathen lands had continued to grow in 
interest year by year, and these organizations at home did 
not come into exiatence before there was a work for them 



( 1*^7 ) 

to do, not only in aiding the workers abroad, bnt in arousing 
an interest among tlie mothers and dciughters at home in 
their sisters in lieathen lands. 

When Miss Dickey reached Mainpuri, her appointed 
field, she found an interesting work in progress. In 
September 1870, Mrs. Alexander had written of a normal 
school for girls in successful operation, and ten other girls' 
schools. Six of these schools were in the city of Mainpuri, 
and four in adjoining villages, and in all Christian books 
were used. The opening for work among the women in 
their homes was also encouraging. 

Mrs. Kellogg found the work in the city of Furrukhabad 
continually growing in interest, and during this same year 
reported six schools for girls, and increasing opportunities 
for work in the zenanas. She received a peculiarly warm 
welcome in the homes of the Sadhs, an interesting communi- 
ty of people in the city of Furrukhabad. The "Sadhs reject 
idolatry, caste and pantheism, but believe in transmigration, 
are careful of animal life, and rely greatly on works of 
merit for salvation." Mr. Kellogg had felt much en- 
couraged to labor among the Sadhs, and had been invited to 
bring Mrs. Kellogg to talk with the women of their house- 
holds. There was much to gladden the hearts of the mission- 
aries in Furrukhabad and Futtehgurh at this time. Mr. 
Kellogg wrote, "A few high-caste women have begun to at- 
tend the Sabbath services, a thing without precedent in 
these parts." 

The work at Rakha under the care of Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnson was a responsible one, and though in some respects 
trying, had yet elements of encouragement and interest. 
Mr. Johnson wrote in April, 1871, that he had a class of 
seven studying theology under him. 

Mrs. Walsh wrote from Allahabad some time during the 
year 1870, that thirty zenanas in the city were visited, and 
that the work was limited only by the small staff of laborers. 
Miss Lizzie Walsh during this year received her appoint- 
ment as a missionary, and soon became much interested in a 
school taught in the Kutra mission compound for the 
daughters of the native Christians and the orphan girls 
in the care of the mission. 

Early in 1871, Mr. Kellogg, on account of impaired 
health, found it necessary to return to America with his 



( 138 ) 

family. In the autumn of 1871, Mr. Wyckoff, leaving his 
family in America, embarked at New York on his return 
to India. He was accompanied by Miss J. A. Nelson, of 
Dayton, Ohio, and Miss Eva Sly, of Vermont. Miss Nelson 
came to India under appointment for the Lodiana Mission, and 
Miss Sly for the Furrukhabad Mission. The party readied 
Allahabad in November. Mr. Wyckoff was stationed at 
Furrukhabad, and Miss Sly joined Miss Dickey atMainpuri. 

The Rev. J. J. Walsh, who had labored in India for many 
years, was at this time suffering from ill health, as well as 
from a partial failure of eye-sight. It was therefore decided 
at the mission meeting held in Allahabad in the autumn 
of this year, that Mr. and Mrs. Walsh should return 
to America. Mr. Brodhead was at this time transferred 
from Furrukhabad to Allahabad, and appointed editor of 
the Montlily Magazine, which from its beginning had been 
ably edited by Mr. Walsh. 

The Synod of India met in Allahabad the same autumn, 
and at this meeting it was decided to open in Allahabad, 
early the following year, a theological training school, and to 
this work Mr. Brodhead and Mr. Wj'nkoop were appointed. 
Mr. Holcomb was at this time transferred from the Lodiana 
to the Furrukhabad Mission, and stationed at Furrukhabad. 

The Church at Kutra had been ministered to by Mr. 
Walsh after the departure of Dr. Owen for America. 
In the beginning of 1872, J. J. Caleb, who had been 
brought up and educated by the mission, had served the 
mission as a catechist, and had been for some time a licen- 
tiate preacher, was ordained and installed pastor over this 
Church. Not long after this event, Mr. and Mrs. Walsh 
left India for America, and thus terminated their connection 
■with the mission. To abandon altogether their chosen 
work, and the people among whom they had so long 
labored, was a severe trial to both Mr. and Mrs. Walsh, for 
both had loved the work, and were justly held in high 
esteem by both the European and Native community. 
After their return to America, Mr. and Mrs. Walsh settled 
in Millerton, N. Y., and for a year or two Mr. Walsh was 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church in that place ; but his 
gradually failing eye-sight compelled him to resign a 
work which he had found most congenial. Mr. and Mrs. 
Walsh then removed to Amenia, N. Y., where they continued 



( 139 ) 

to reside until the death of Mr. Walsh, which occurred on 
the 7th of Februar}^, 188 A. Mr. Walsh was boiu April 4th 
1820. He was educated at Union College and Princeton 
Seminary, and with Mrs. Walsh sailed for India in 1843. 
An enthusiastic missionary, cheerful in disposition, and 
possessing great tact in dealing with the people of the 
country, he was regarded by them with more than ordinary 
affection, and his loss was sincerely mourned. 

On the 29th of March, 1872, another catechist, who had 
been cared for by the mission from his youth, Nabibakhsh, 
was installed pastor over the Church in Etawah. 

The 2nd of April, 1872, was a memorable day in Mainpuri. 
The mission house was full of guests, and there were tents 
under some of the trees in the compound to accommodate 
those for whom room could not be found in the mission 
bungalow. The church was prettily decorated, and every 
thing wore a gala look. On that day in the mission church 
at Mainpuri, the Rev. T. Tracy was united in marriage to 
Miss N. M. Dickey, and the Rev. J. J. Lucas to Miss Eva 
Sly, tbe Rev. J. M. Alexander performing the ceremony 
in each case. 

Mr. Lucas had a short time before been transferred from 
Allahabad to Mainpuri. Mr. Johnson and family in the 
beginning of the year had returned to America, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Tracy were appointed to take charge of the work at 
Rakha. 

The theological school opened at Allahabad on the 15tli 
of April, 1872, with twenty-seven students. 

In June of the same year Miss Christine Belz, who had 
come to India eight years before under the care of the 
Ladies' Missionary Society at Berlin, Prussia, was transfer- 
red from that Society to our own, and stationed at Etawah, 
where she has ever since faithfully labored. 

In October, 1872, the Rev. S. H. Kellogg and family left 
New York on their return to India. Mrs. Wyckoff and 
three of her children accompanied them. This party was 
joined in London by Miss P. A. Brink, M. D., who had 
been sent out from America to labor in the Furrukhabad 
Mission. 

On the 23rd of the same month, the Rev. J.Warren, D. D., 
and Mrs. Warren embarked at New York for India. Dr. 
Warren had been absent from India since 1854, and great- 



( HO ) 

\j did he rejoice that the way was at length opened for his 
return. When lie left India, Dr. Warren was accompa- 
nied by Mrs. Warren, two sons and one daughter. Mrs. 
Warren died some time after their return to America, and 
tlie younger son, in the time of his country's need, laid 
down liis life in her service, — one of that great company 
that perished so miserably in that living grave, Auder- 
Bonville, 

Dr. Warren on his return to India, came accompanied by 
a companion in fullest sympatliy with him in the work to 
which in his early manhood he had consecrated himself. 

The missionaries sailing from New York in October, 
reached Allahabad in time to be present at a Missionary 
Conference of unusual and peculiar interest. This Confer- 
ence continued from the 2Gth of December, to January 2nd 
inclusive. In this Conference were assembled 118 mission- 
aries, rejireseuting 19 Societies, and " every region of the 
country from Cape Comorin in the South, to Peshawar on 
the North-West frontier. Englishmen, Scotchmen, Irish- 
men, Norwegians, Germans and Americans were found in 
this almost Ecumenical Council, and best of all, India herself 
was represented by 21 ordained clergymen, conspicuous 
not less for their Christian dignity and courtesy than their 
high education and culture." 

Dr. Warren was appointed to Futtehgurh, and Mr. 
Tracy was transferred from that place to Furrukliabad. 
Mr. Kellogg was stationed at Allahabad, to take part ia 
the work of the theological training school, and Mr. 
Holcomb was transferred from Furrukhabad to Allahabad. 

During the cold season of this year, Mr. UUmann and 
Mr. Kellogg, at the request of the mission, visited/ Jhausi, 
a city on the borders of the North-West Provinces, and di- 
rectly west of Allahabad. These brethren brought back a 
most encouraging report, having found the people through- 
out their whole journey to Jhansi uncommonly ready to 
hear the Cospel, and having everywhere had large and 
attentive audiences. Of the city of Jhansi, Mr. Kellogg 
said in his report : — "It seems to us both an admirable 
place for a station." Jhansi was at that time made an out- 
station of tlie mission. 

During the summer of 1873, Miss Mary N. Wilson and 
Miss Sara Seward, M. D., both of whom had come to India 



( 141 ) 

under the auspices of the "Woman's Union Missionary 
Society," became associated with our mission, and both 
were stationed at Allahabad, where Miss Seward still 
labors. During the same year Miss Edith Blunt of Fut- 
tehgurh was placed on the staff of workers in that city, 
and has ever since been engaged in work among the women 
and children in schools and zenanas. A widowed sister, 
Mrs. Brown, was associated with Miss Blunt in this work 
until her marriage, when she removed to another station. 
On the 23rd of October, 1873, Mrs. S. J. Millar, of Philadel- 
phia, embarked at New York, to engage in missionary work 
in India. Mrs. Millar, upon her arrival, was appointed to 
the station of Maiupuri, 

The Synod of India convened in Dehra in November, 
1873, and in connection with this meeting was held the 
annual meeting of the Furrukhabad Mission. At this 
meeting it was resolved to send a missionary to the native 
state of Grwalior. A committee appointed by the mission 
had visited Grwalior in January, 1867, for the purpose of 
ascertaining if the way was open for the beginning of 
missionary work, there ; but the brethren with sad hearts 
turned away, " having received no encouragement to pros- 
ecute their endeavors." Now, however, the way to the 
accomplishment of what had so long been desired, seemed 
open, and upon work in this untried field, Dr. and Mrs. 
Warren gladly consented to enter ; and the English 
Cantonment of Morar, adjacent to the *' Lashkar," as 
the Gwalior capital is called, thenceforth became their 
home. 

Upon the transfer of Dr. Warren from Futtehgurh to 
Morar, Mr. Lucas was transferred from Mainpuri to Fut- 
tehgurh. 

In the spring of 1874, the Eev. J. M. Alexander and 
family were compelled for reasons of health to return for 
a season to America. Mrs. Brodhead also returned to 
America the same year. 

On the 23rd of April, 1874, Pundit Mohun Lai was 
ordained and installed pastor of the Church in Furrukhabad. 
He had been baptized by Mr. Scott in 1860. At the time 
of his baptism he was in Government employ, but in May, 
1862, he resigned his position, and thenceforth labored as 
a catechist in the mission until the time of his ordination. 



( If^ ) 

Misa Brink's oonnectiou with the mission was dissolved 
in 1874. 

The summer of 1870 is memorable in Allahabad for a 
fall of rain almost unprecedented. In a single day 17 
inches of rain fell, of which 15 inches fell in 13 hours, this 
amount being nearly one half the iisual fall for the wholo 
rainy season. As the result, the Gauges and Jumna rose 
alarmingly, and the Granges at last burst the embankment 
beyond the fort, and covered an area of several square 
miles with deep water. A few hours later the Jumua 
burst its embankment just above the mission bungalow, and 
flowed though the native city five feet deep. The mission 
compound was flooded, and nearly all the kachcha (unburnt 
brick) houses of the native Christians, as well as the 
theological school houses, were swept away, and only 
the ruined walls of one or two remained. The Jumna 
mission bungalow was at that time occupied by Messrs. 
Brodhead and Heyl, and during the night of greatest 
danger, a boat was moored to the rear of the house, and the 
two brethren, with portmanteaus packed, were ready to flee 
at a moment's notice, should the river break into the house. 
Happily no lives were lost. The native Christians, as the 
river entered their houses, took refuge in the high school 
building, which is a substantial structure. Looking across 
the Jumna from the railroad bridge toward the South, the 
whole country, as far as visible, was under water. All the 
villages within two or three miles of the river on that side 
were swept away. Twelve thousand persons, it is said, 
were made homeless by this flood. A similar calamity 
overtook the city of Allahabad in the year 1838, when the 
Ganges burst its embankment, and the plain between this 
river and the Jumna was inundated. 

The Ilev. W. F. Johnson and family sailed from New 
York, on their return to India, on the 13th of October, 1874. 
They were accompanied by Miss A. E. Scott, eldest 
daughter of the liev. J. L. Scott, Miss M. llardie, of Pitts- 
burg, Pa, and Miss Anna MeGinnis, of Canonsburg, Pa. 
Mr. llcyl, who had ])aid a brief visit to America, joined 
this party on the continent. Mr. and Mrs Johnson were 
appointed to Mainpuri, and Mr. Heyl to Allahabad. 
Miss llurdie was appointed to Mainpuri. Miss Scott was 
asked to go to Lundour to take charge of the school kuowu 



( 143 ) 

as "Woodstock," and this work she consented for a time 
to undertake. Miss McGinnis had come to India under 
appointment for the Kolhapur Mission. 

The Rev. J. M. Alexander and family returned to India 
in the autumn of 1875, and were stationed at Mainpuri, where 
before their visit to America they had passed several years. 
Mr. Johnson was at this time transferred from Mainpuri 
to Allahabad. 

Dr. Brodhead in the beginning of 1876 left India to 
rejoin his family in America. He was accompanied by Miss 
Walsh and Miss Hardie, the latter not expecting to 
return to India, on account of continued ill health, the cli- 
mate of India having proved unsuitable to her constitution. 
The Eev. Gr. A. Seeley also returned to America the same 
year. 

On the 4th of March, 1876, Mrs. Kellogg, after an ill- 
ness of only a week, was called home. Almost her last 
words were, " Saved entirely, entirely through Christ." 
A devoted mother, an earnest missionary, a true, unselfish 
friend, her death was a loss not only to her family, but to 
the work and the whole mission circle. 

This sad event removed permanently from the field one 
of our most valued missionaries, for shortly after the death 
of Mrs. Kellogg, Mr. Kellogg returned to America with 
his motherless children, and unable to make suitable pro- 
vision for them, resigned his position as a missionary, and 
accepted a post at home. 

A few months later the Eev. T. S. Wynkoop turned his 
face homewards, summoned thither on account of the death 
of his father, and as the way to his return seemed hedged 
up, another valued missionary was lost to the field. 

While in attendance upon the annual mission meeting 
held in November, 1876, in Allahabad, Dr. Warren was 
stricken down with the disease which a few months later 
terminated his life. It was after an evening when he had 
Beemed more than usually animated, that a night of great 
Buffering followed, and death seemed at the door. He 
rallied, however, and after a few days was one afternoon at 
his own request driven in an easy carriage to the Kutra 
mission house, which, before his return to America, had 
been for many years his home. We can never forget that 
visit, for the invalid was full of tender feeling, as if fully 

19 



( H4 ) 

realizing that he was visiting for the last time a place 
endeared to hira by many sacred associations. 

Dr. Warren asked to be couducted to one of the sleeping 
rooms of the bungalow. Standing for a moment on the 
threshold, he said with faltering voice, pointing to one 
corner of the room, " In that corner my sweet little 
daughter lay when dead." This little lamb had been taken 
to the Saviour's bosom long, long years before, but as the 
father looked into that little room, the sense of his bereave- 
ment for a moment overcame him, as if his grief had been 
of yesterday. 

Dr. Warren recovered sufficiently to return to his home 
in Morar, but his work was done. His health continued 
to decline, and he suffered greatly, but his sufferings 
were borne with patience. It was a great mercy that 
during the last two or three days of his life he was relieved 
from extreme bodily pain. He passed away on the 7th of 
March, 1877. Dr. Warren was highly esteemed by all 
classes of the people amongst whom he lived. 

In the last note received from him at the Mission House, 
New York, he said, " If this should be my last letter to 
you, let me express my ardent wishes for the prosperity of 
the Board of Missions. I am very ill now, but our King 
will do all things well." 

It was Mrs. Warren's desire to remain in India, and 
she was therefore left in charge of the station of Morar, to 
carry on with the assistance of native laborers the work 
Dr. Warren had begun ; and there she still continues to 
labor. After the death of Dr. Warren, an eligible site 
for a church was donated by Government, and with 
funds contributed by friends in America, England and 
India, Mrs. Warren is erecting a small but substantial 
house of worship. One of the most interesting features con- 
nected with the work in Morar is the large Sabbath-school 
of native children which Mrs. Warren has succeeded in 
establishing, and the truths there taught are doubtless con- 
veyed to many a home. 

The valuable property at Landour, known as ** Wood- 
Btock," was purchased by the Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society, of Philadelphia, in the beginning of 1873. It waa 
designed at first as a school only for the children of mission- 
aries, but it was afterwards decided to admit others. The 



( H5 ) 

school grew in numbers until it was deemed advisable to 
Bend out from America some one fitted to take the entire 
charge of it. 

Mrs. Scott, the wife of one of our esteemed missionaries, 
with practical knowledge of India, and with experience 
as an educator, was invited to undertake this responsibility, 
and Miss Mary Fullerton, a daughter of the Rev. R. 8. 
Fullerton, was asked to become her associate in the work of 
the school. These ladies, yielding to the request made for 
their services, arranged to come to India together. 

On the evening of Monday, January 15th 1877, a large 
audience gathered in the Princeton church, West Phila- 
delphia, to bid farewell to these two ladies. " This meet- 
ing, so full of interest, both in connection with past 
events, and in its hopes for the future, was concluded with 
the benediction, pronounced by the Rev. J. L. Scott," who 
a few months later joined Mrs. Scott in India. 

Mrs. Scott and Miss Fullerton embarked from Philadel- 
phia for India, on January 25th. It was the day of prayer 
for schools and colleges, a fitting time for these mission- 
aries to set out upon their journey. They reached India 
in season to open the school in March, the time appointed. 
It was decided that Miss Scott should also be associated 
W'ith Mrs. Scott and Miss Fullerton in the work at Wood- 
stock. This school, over which Mrs. Scott still presides, 
assisted by a very efficient corps of teachers, holds a dis- 
tinguished place among the educational institutions of 
India, and is doing no unimportant service in a missionary 
point of view, in the education of many, who, it is hoped, 
will labor for the evangelization of the people of India. 

During the cold season of 1877, Dr. Brodhead, accom- 
panied by Miss Walsh, returned to the work in India. Dr. 
Brodhead was stationed at Allahabad, and Miss Walsh 
joined Mrs. Warren in Morar. 

During this year, Mrs. Millar's connection with the 
mission was dissolved. 

Near the close of the hot season of 1878, Dr. Brodhead 
was constrained by sudden failure of health, once more to 
turn his face towards America. This was a sore trial to 
him, as he had so recently returned to India in apparent 
health, and the trial was the more severe, as he feared that 
he would not again be able to labor in his chosen field. Dr. 



( 146 ) 

Brodhead is Btill in America, a great loss to the mission 
field. 

In May, 1879, death again entered our mission circle 
at Allahabad, taking from our midst another valued 
laborer, Mary Nevius Wilson. Miss Wilson sailed for India 
on the 6th of July, 1868, and until the summer of 1873 
was connected with the Woman's Union Missionary Society. 
She was a devoted missionary and greatly beloved. Of her 
it could be said with peculiar significance that, ready to 
defer to the wishes of others, she pleased not herself. 
Faithful, patient and self-denying, she quietly pursued her 
labors, ceasing not from toil until the summons came to 
call her home. She passed peacefully away after a brief 
illness, on the evening of May 29th, 1879. 

On the 2nd of October, 1879, a party of twelve adults and 
eight children embarked at Philadelphia for India. Of 
this number six were destined for the Furrukhabad Mission, 
and the others for the Lodiana Mission. The Kev. Gr. A. 
Seeley had married while in America, and now returned 
with Mrs. Seeley. His sister. Miss E. Seeley, was a member 
of this party, but she came out under appointment for the 
Woodstock school. The Rev. J. C. R. and Mrs. Ewing, 
Miss Sara Shook Hutchinson and Miss Fannie Perley, 
completed the reinforcement for the Furrukhabad Mis- 
sion. Mr. and Mrs. Seeley, and Mr. And Mrs. Ewing 
were stationed at Furrukhabad. Miss Hutchinson and 
Miss Perley were appointed to Mainpuri, to labor with 
Miss Walsh. The three ladies occupied the house built in 
1872 as a home for single ladies, "the earnest workers in 
Pittsburg and Allegheny" having furnished the means for 
this purpose. This house is known as the " Louisa Lowrie 
Home," so named in loving memory of the first mission- 
ary of our Society who laid down her life in India. 

Miss Seeley, after a year or two spent in work at "Wood- 
Btock", was appointed by the mission to Furrukhabad, and 
has ever since been actively engaged in work in schools and 
zenanas in that city. 

The Rev. J. L. Scott, w^hose health had for some months 
previous been declining, died at Dehra, in the cold season of 
1880. Thus passed away one of the veterans of the service, a 
man greatly beloved, and whose missionary life had been a 
most useful one. Mr. Scott was patient, conscientious and 



( 147 ) 

faithful in the discharge of all his duties, the same earnest, 
cheerful worker whether presiding over the Christian village 
of Rakha, with its many perflexiug cares, engagediu literary 
labors, or preaching the Gospel on tours in the district. 

In the spring of 1880, the Rev. T. Tracy and family, 
the Rev. J. F. Holcomb and wife, and Mrs. Lucas and her 
children returned to America. Mr. Lucas joined his family 
a year later. 

The Rev. J. S. Woodside, who had labored many years 
in connection with the Lodiana Mission, paid a brief visit 
to America during the summer of 1880, and after his 
return, labored in connection with the Furrukhabad Mission, 
and was stationed at Futtehgurh. Miss Woodside, who 
along with her parents became a member of the Furrukhabad 
Mission, has rendered most efficient service in the orphanage 
and in the girls' school at Rakha, as well as in other depart- 
ments of labor. 

Miss Seward left India on a visit to America early in the 
year 1880. She embarked at New York on her return, on 
October 30th of the same year, accompanied by two ladies, 
Miss Fatten for the Kolhapur Mission, and Miss Butler, 
sent out by the ladies of the North- West Board, for work 
in Grwalior. 

The Rev. Francis Heyl, because of impaired health, left 
India for America during the summer of 1881, and is still 
at home. Mr. Heyl was an earnest missionary, and left the 
field with great regret. 

The Rev. J. F. and Mrs. Holcomb sailed from Quebec on 
their return to India, September 24th, 1881. The Rev. T. 
Tracy and family embarked at Philadelphia on their return, 
on the 1st of October. The Rev. Gr. W. and Mrs. Pollock 
left New York to enter upon missionary work in India, on 
the 6th of the same month. Mr. Ullmann, having spent 
the summer of 1881 with his family in England, was upon 
his return transferred from the Furrukhabad to the Lodi- 
ana Mission, and Mr. and Mrs. Tracy were appointed to 
Etawah, the station which by Mr. Ullmann's transfer had 
been made vacant. Mr. and Mrs. Holcomb were again 
Btationed at Allahabad. Mr. and Mrs. Ewing were at this 
time transferred from Furrukhabad to Allahabad, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Pollock were stationed at Furrukhabad. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lucas returned to India during the sum- 



( 148 ) 

mer of 1882, and were appointed to Mainpnri, Mr. and 
Mrs. Alexander having been transferred from that station 
to Allahabad. Feeling the need of a chapel in the city of 
Mainpuri, Mr. Alexander in 1881, secured an eligible site, 
on a much frequented street of the city, and near a large 
tank ■which was a favorite place of rendezvous during the 
hot months, and began to build. Mr. Alexander gave much 
time to the supervision of the work, which was completed 
near the end of 1882. Toward the erection of this chapel 
the Board in New York made a grant of Rs. JiOOO, friends 
in America sent nearly Rs. 1000, and in India, Europeans, 
Christian natives, Hindus and Mohammedans contributed 
nearly Rs. 1200. Through the kindness and liberality of 
friends in Philadelphia a bell was provided. One of the last 
services Mr. Alexander performed before leaving Mainpuri 
for Allahabad, was to preach the first sermon in this building, 
setting it apart for the sacred use for which it was designed. 

In September 1882, Miss Walsh was married to the Rev. 
J. Smitheman, a missionary laboring in Assam, in connec- 
tion with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

The Rev. B. D. Wyckoff and family left New York on 
their return to India, on September 29th, 1883. Since their 
return, Mr. Wyckoff has labored within the bounds of the 
Lodiana Mission. 

At a meeting of the Presbytery of Allahabad, held 
during the summer of 1883, Pandit Rajaram Chitamber 
was ordained as an evangelist, and soon after was appoint- 
ed to take charge of the work at Etah, which had been an 
out-station of Mainpuri. This young man came from 
Bombay, where he had been a student in the Free Church 
Institution, under the late Dr. Wilson. He had learned 
enough of Christianity to desire to be a Christian himself, 
and the change which had taken place in him was apparent 
to his fellow students, so that to avoid persecution he left 
Bombay. Coming to Allahabad he was further instructed 
by our missionaries and baptized. Subsequently he became 
a student in Muir College, and after completing the course 
of study for the B. A. degree, served the mission as a cate- 
chist until his ordination. 

The Rev. W. F. Johnson, D. D., with his family, and the 
Rev. J, M. Alexander and family, left India, ou their re- 
turn to America, early in 1884. 



( 149 ) 

We have at the present time in connection with the 
Furrukhabad Mission the following foreign laborers : — on 
the field, including missionaries and their wives, and single 
ladies engaged in mission work, nineteen ; on furlough in 
America, four ; in England, one. 

This brief sketch furnishes but a very imperfect account of 
this mission and its work. Because of its brevity much of 
interest has necessarily been omitted ; besides, the reports 
from which the facts have chiefly been gathered, are some of 
them meagre in the extreme. There are several out-stations 
in connection with the Furrukhabad Mission, of which no 
mention has been made, but in none of these is the work 
devoid of interest, and some of the number give much 
promise for the future. 

Besides the little company of natives of the country who 
have received ordination, there are other valued laborers 
from among the people of the land, including teachers, 
catechists, Scripture-readers, Bible-women and zenana- 
visitors. 

The hearts of the laborers here have not been glad- 
ened as in some other parts of India, by seeing great 
multitudes turn to the Lord ; ours has not been the joy of 
seeing a nation born in a day ; yet we are not without prec- 
ious tokens of the Lord's blessing. We confidently be- 
lieve that God has a favor unto this people, and that from 
this part of India also many, many more bright jewels shall 
yet be gathered for the Saviour's crown. 



1884. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE 
KOLHAPCR MISSION. 



BY EEV. G. W. SEILER. 



The Country Occupied. 

The " American Presbyterian Mission in Western India" 
(generally known as the *' Kolhapur Mission") occupies that 
part o£ Maharashtra called the "Southern Maratha Country," 
and a strip west of the Syhadri (Grhats) mountains called 
the "Southern Concan." The average length of the district 
is one hundred miles ; width, seventy-five miles. It is 
mountainous in the western part, undulating-, with plains 
of considerable size in the eastern part, and is watered 
by the Krishna, Warna and other rivers. In the Southern 
Maratha Country the soil is black, and very fertile, and the 
staple cereals are zhondala (IIolcus Sorghum) rice, bajri and 
wheat. Sugar-cane and cotton are also largely produced. 

The population, which is about 4,000,000, consists of 
Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Marathas, Shudras, Ma- 
homedans, and out-castes. The Marathas claim descent 
from the Kshatriyas, but all of the middle classes, including 
the farmers and Shudras generally, are called Marathas. 
The Marathas are divided into many castes representing 
the different trades. The out-castes are Chambhars (shoe- 
makers), Dhors (Tanners) Mahars, Mangs, liolars, &c. Bhills 
live north of our field. 

The predominant religion, of course, is Hinduism. In 
Kolhapur the Mahomedans are probably not more than 
one-tenth as numerous as the Hindus, but in Katnagiri, 
and in most of the towns on the coast they constitute more 

20 



( 152 ) 

than a fourth of the population. There arc also Jains in the 
large towns and somo villages, and a few native Christians. 
Marathi is the principal language spoken, and the Maho- 
medans and many Marat has also speak a corrupt Hindustani. 
In the lower part of the Southern Maratha Country Canareso 
is better understood than Marathi. 

The Stations. 

The principal station of this Mission is Kolhnpur, a city 
of 45,000 inhabitants, situated 250 miles South East of 
Bombay. It is the capital of Kolhapur State, and is 
ruled by the descendants of Shivaji, the founder of tho 
Maratha kingdom. 

Sangli, a city of 15,000 inhabitants is situated in a fertile 
plain J30 miles East of Kolhapur. It is a very Brahminical 
place ; nevertheless, we have received permission to build 
mission houses on premises we have purchased very near 
the city. 

Panhdld is in a large fortress on a spur of the Syhadri 
mountains, 12 miles North of Kolhapur. It was first 
occupied as a sanitarium only, but since 1875 a missionary 
has been stationed there throughout the year. It is 3000 
feet above the sea, and has a population of 3000. 

Ratndgiri is on the coast, 125 miles South of Bombay. 
It has a population of 12,000, a third of whom are Mahome- 
dans. The most of these latter and some Hindus are 
fishermen, and subsist largely on fish, oysters and mussels. 
Many thousands of cocoa-nut trees at Ratndgiri furnish the 
means of a livelihood to a numerous caste called Bhanddris, 
who are toddy drawers. Eice and raggy, (Cynosurus 
corocanus) are the principal cereals. There is a steam saw- 
mill and a Government " School of Industry" connected with 
it which gives employment to many persons. At our other 
stations there are only the common industries of inland town. 

Missionary Work. 

By whom hcgun^ i^c. 

Hev. H. G-. Wilder having been directed by Rev. R. 
Anderson, D. D. Secretary of the A. B. C. F. M. to com- 
mence a mission at Kolhapur S. M. C. moved there with 
his family in December 1802. For a while the natives of 



( 153 ) 

Kolhapur were hostile to the mission, and kept aloof from 
the missionary, but their prejudice was lived down, and hun- 
dred of children wore sent to the schools of the Mission. 
The royal family, too, were kindly disposed towards Mr. 
Wilder. 

In 1870, the mission was taken under the care of the 
American Presbyterian Board, and at the end of that year 
Kev. Q-. W. Seiler was sent to Kolhapur, where he remain- 
ed until a few mouths after Mr. Wilder's final retirement in 
1875, and then was transferred to Ratnagiri. 

In December 1872, the Bev. W. P. Barker and wife, 
Rev. Messrs. Graham and Hull and Miss Mary Bunnell 
(soon afterwards married to Mr. Graham) joined the mission. 
And in January 1873, Mr. Barker was directed by the 
mission to begin a mission in Ratnagiri. Mr. B. had been 
in Western India 10 years under the A. B. C. F. M. and 
after spending a few years in America to regain his health, 
returned to India as a missionary of our Board. It is a 
cause for regret that in January 1876, he was obliged on 
account of illness, to finally leave India. He died suddenly 
in Utah, January 17, 1882, while making arrangements for 
beginning evangelistic work there. lie was an earnest, 
faithful missionary, and beloved by the natives. 

In Decembor 1874, Miss Annie M. McGinnes arrived 
from America, and was married to Mr. Hull, and in a few 
months (on the departure of Mr. and Mrs. Wilder) took 
charge of the girls' school. 

In December 1875 the Rev. J. M. Goheen and wife 
arrived at Kolhapur. Mrs. Goheen was in very delicate 
health, and she could do little beyond setting a true Chris- 
tian example to the natives, for, after a wearisome illness, 
she died in Kolhapur January 17, 1878. 

In December 1876, Miss Amanda B. McGinnes arrived 
in Kolhapur, and after making some progress in the study 
of the language, began to assist Mrs. Hull in the girls' 
school and elsewhere. She married Mr. Goheen May 1, 
1879. 

The Rev. G. H. Ferris and wife joined the mission Jan. 
24, 1879, and after the rains of 1880 were sent to occupy 
Panhala, where they still are. Continuous missionary 
work was begun at that station by Rev. J. P. Graham and 
wife in Oct 1875, who labored there unremittingly till 



( 154 ) 

May 1870, gathering a church of a dozen or more raera- 
)jers, and tlion they were transferred to liatnagiri. Miss 
Estlier E. Patton came to KoUuipur in December 1880, 
and was sent to Panhala, where she spends much of her 
time in teacliing girls and visiting. 

In November 1880, Kev. L. B. Tedford and wife camo 
to the mission and remained in Kolhdpur until they were 
transferred to Katnagiri in 1884. 

In December 1881 Mr. Seiler returned with his wife 
after a visit to America, and is now in Kolhapur. Mr. 
Hull's health failing, he very reluctantly went to America 
in March 1879, and died in March 1881, much regretted. 
Mrs. Hull returned with her children, to Kolhapur in De- 
cember 1881. At the direction of the mission, Mr. and 
Mrs. Grraham went to occupy Sangli in April 1884, and 
already there are a few inquirers. 

Evangelistic Education. 

"We have always tried to give much prominence to Chris- 
tian truth in our educational work. Twenty-five years ago 
there were flourishing vernacular mission schools in Kolha- 
pur, and Mrs. Wilder's girls' school, waiich consisted of 
high and low caste girls, was maintained until her retire- 
ment in 1875. It has been succeeded by two girls' 
Bchools and a Christian school of boys and girls. An 
English High School was started after Mr. Seller's arrival 
in 1870, which was attended for a while by nearly fifty 
students, but afterwards, as many were unwilling to attend 
tlie Sunday preaching service, the number dwindled down 
to fifteen. In February 1875, the school was suspended. 

There are now, in this Mission, twelve boys' and five 
girls' schools, in which the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Com- 
mandments, Elementary and Shorter Catechism, Summary 
of Christian Doctrine, and Bible portions are taught. An 
English night school has just been opened in Kolhapur, 
•which though small now it is hoped will soon grow larger. 
Since the Kolhapur Mission was begun, nearly 4000 boys 
an 1 girls have studied in our English and Vernacular schools, 
the large majority of whom are of the Marathi caste. 
Several high and low caste pupils have been baptized, and 
many of all classes have been made more liberal-minded by 
long attendance in the schools. 



( 155 ) 

Evangelistic Preaching. 

Preaching is conducted chiefly in chapels, in or near 
school-houses, occasionally in bazars and in villages. When 
a new station is opened we usually rent a house or erect one, 
if possible, for holding divine services. At the meetings 
in chapels, bazars and in villages, hymns to native tunes 
are sung as often as translated hymns. In the chapels at 
Kolhapur, Panhala and Ilatnagiri the singing is accom- 
panied with a cabinet organ ; in the bazars and villages 
the flute, violin and native instruments have been used. 
This year several exhibitions of the magic lantern have 
been given at Kolhapur and Panhala to packed houses, when 
many heard the Gospel who seldom, if ever, come to church. 

Our Christian teachers make weekly oral reports o£ 
controversies and individual conversations held near their 
schools and in other localities. As to itineracy, there is 
not a town or village in the Kolhapur State that has not 
been visited, and in many villages Bibles have either been 
sold or placed in the hands of the authorities with the 
advice that they should be lent to persons desirous of 
reading them. About 2,500 towns and villages in this 
kingdom and surrounding districts have been visited by 
the missionaries accompanied by native Christians, and 
within a year 5,000 Gospels have been sold, besides Bibles 
and Testaments. 

It is known that some have received permanent impres- 
sions from reading the Scriptures or tracts, and a few 
Christians received their first impressions by hearing the 
Gospels in the chapels or schools. Yet, most of the conver- 
sions have been from unexpected quarters, and through means 
and instrumentalities that seemed peculiarly providential. 

Medical Missionary Work. 

We have no Medical Missionary, but at each station, 
especially at Panhala, where there is no hospital, a good 
deal of quinine, santonine and pain-killer are given to native 
Christians and others. Mr. Ferris estimates that during 
1883 he gave medicine to about 2,000 persons. 

Poor Houses, &c. 

There is no poor house at any station, but a few poor and 



( 1-^G ) 

crippled Christians have been cared for and supported by 
missionaries and converts. At llatnagiri tliere is a Leper 
Hospital built by a benevolent rarsee at an expense of 
Ks. 27,000, and capable of accommodating a hundred lepers. 
It is supported by annual grants from Government. Much 
mission work has been done there, but with no visible success. 

Orphanage. 

We have an orphanage of eighteen boys and girls at 
Kolliapur, established during the famine of 1876 — '77. 
All the orphans have been carefully instructed, especially 
in religious truth. 

Nearly all of them have been baptized and have become 
communicants. Last year they organized a Literary 
Society for their mental and moral improvement, which 
meets every Saturday evening, when short essays arc read 
by boys or girls, and remarks or criticisms are made. 

Literary Work. 

This Mission does not own a printing press. Its literary 
productions are chiefly those of Mr. Wilder, namely : — 
(Marathi) Scientific Errors of Hinduism, Commentary on 
Matthew, Mark and Luke, Theological Class Book. Arith- 
metic ; and the following translations : Jane, the Young 
Cottager, The Shepherd of Salisbury, Plain, The School 
boy, and an English Essay Primer. Other members of 
the Mission have translated into Marathi, the Wood- 
cutter of Gutecli and the Shorter Catechism, and are now 
translating the Form of Church Government and Book 
of Discipline. 

Converts. 

The Mission was begun in 1852, and each year afterwards 
there were inquirers, some of whom removing to other 
stations wore baptized by other missionaries, but none were 
baptized at Kolhapur before the close of 1856. In 1857 
there were about half a dozen Christians ; in 1869 there 
were 21 communicants and 5 baptized children, and at the 
end of last year there were 77 communicants reported. 
215 members have been connected with the churches of 
the Mission since its foundation. 

The converts are mostly from the out-caste or Mahars 
and Tauuurs, but wc have a sprinkling from the high 



( 157 ) 

castes, and considering their early training and surround- 
ings, their general character is fairly good. The male and 
female converts are about equally divided. 

Work of Native Christians. 

There are in the Mission 2 Licentiates, 2 Bible Women, 
and 12 Teachers. The Bombay Bible Society employs a 
Colporteur within our bounds. The teachers as well as the 
Licentiates are expected to do evangelistic work. All these 
agents are paid by the mission. At the end of 1882 the 
Kolhapur Church thought it was time to elect and support 
a native pastor, but the election of a candidate gave rise to 
a split in the church, and the pastor- elect did not accept the 
call. We are sorry to say that no election has taken place 
since. There are two organized churches in the mission. 

Occupations of Native Christians. 

Most of the native converts are agents of the mission, or 
servants and workingmen. None of them are wealthy. 
Some had to forsake everything to become Christians. 

Sunday Schools. 

There are Sunday Schools for heathen and Christians at 
all the stations and several sub-stations. The Sunday 
School is one of the most encouraging features of the work 
in Kolhapur. During the past year there has been an 
average attendance of nearly 400 pupils in Kolhapur and 
three out-stations, many of whom attend the mission day 
schools. They are conducted as in America, and superin- 
tended generally by missionaries, those at the out-station 
by Christians teachers, while missionaries and native Clu'is- 
tians teach the classes. 

Presbytery. 
There is only one Presbytery connected with the Kolha- 
pur Mission i. e. the Presbytery of Kolhapur, which was 
organized in December 1872, and consists of six ministerial 
members, none of whom are native, as no helper has been 
ordained yet. 

Mission Meetings. 

Our meeting for the management of mission business 
takes place annually about the end of December. The 



( 158 ) 

ladies generally attend them, wlicn convenient and ladies 
Laving special appoiutmcuts by the Boards at homo, are 
expect to attend. 

Sanitarium. 

PunhiUa has generally been used as a Sanitarium, but 
as it is only 800 feet higher than Kolhapur, and is so near 
the centre of our field, and has an organized church, 
missionaries spending the hot season there do not experience 
the physical benefit or diversion that they require. Hence 
the mission is occasionally represented by one of its families 
at Mahabaleshwur, the great sanitarium of western India. 
Mahabaleshwur is 110 miles North West of Kolhapur, 
and 5,400 feet above the sea. 

FiuENDSHiP (or Hostility) shown to the Mission. 

The Groverumont has almost always shown friendship 
towards the mission. When the chapel was to be built iu 
Kolhapur city, the King Shivaji, olt'ered to float timber 
down the Punchaguuga river for it. Some European offi- 
cials have helped us much with their moral influence and 
with funds, and a few have been unfriendly, or afraid of 
stirring up native prejudice and laying themselves open to 
the charge of sympathizing too much with missionaries 
in their efforts. A few native officials and gentlemen have 
been very kind, but it is natural that there should be 
others who grumble at our aggressiveness. In general, 
there has been no malignant hostility on the part of the 
state or British Grovernment. 

Special aid in India. 

Before the mission was adopted by our Board, it was 
supported almost entirely by English residents in India, 
many of whom still contribute to it. H. B. Boswell Esq., 
retired, gave lis. 2000 towards building the chapel in llat- 
nagiri. Very few natives outside of the Christian body, 
have donated anything. 

Pueaciung to Europeans. 

At Ratndgiri the resident missionary has frequently 
preached to the English in the rainy season, when they 
arc iu from the dibtriuts. At Kolhapur there has been a 



( 159 ) 

Cliurch of England Chaplain for many years, and nearly 
all the Europeans there belonging to the established or the 
Konian Catholic Church, our missionaries have seldom bad 
service in English. In former years Mr. Wilder sometimes 
preached to the English and officiated at funeral services 
and marriages. 

Mission Buildings. 

There are now in this field 14 bungalows, chapels and 
school-houses, whose aggregate value is about Rs. 52,000. 

The Outlook. 

The advance of education has to a great extent caused a 
decline of faith in popular Hinduism, and many who 
have lost faith in their own religion conclude per saltum 
that Christianity, too, is false. Tens of thousands of 
skeptical books are imported from Europe, and by this 
means people fortify themselves against Evangelical attacks. 

In Kolhapur the people have prospered by English en- 
terprise, and thousands of people find employment in pub- 
lic works ; epidemics do not rage as formerly and physical 
suffering has been alleviated, and, upon the whole, they are 
receiving at once the earthly benefits of a civilization that 
people in Europe struggled for generations to obtain. This 
seems to make them indifferent to spiritual things, or even 
to ridicule and despise true religion. Then last but not 
least, is the force of time- honored institutions — or custom. 
Intemperance too, is increasing. These are the chief hin- 
drances to the progress of Christ's cause. 

On the other hand, some of the circumstances that con- 
stitute a hindrance are also a help to the cause. I mean 
education, and the benefits our western civilization is con- 
ferring on the people. Some whose eyes have been opened 
by education, have been led to inquire into true religion, 
and then abandon Polytheism and some of its evils. The 
tendency of some of these educated men is in the right 
direction. Another encouraging fact is that in the Go- 
vernment English schools the " Royal Readers" in which 
Christian principles are judiciously taught, are used. 

The Mahomedans — especially fishermen and shopkeep- 
ers — and the Vaishyas seem to be the least hopeful classes, 
The Marathas and Mahars are the most hopeful. 

2i 



APPENDIX A. 



The LoDiANA Mission in its early days.* 

Our brethren in India, as our readers know, have set 
apart four days — December 3rd to 6th — for services to 
commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of their work. This 
interesting observance suggests a few notes, not aiming 
at anything later than what relates to the first two or three 
years, concerning the beginning of our mission in that 
country. For complete accounts, reference must be made 
to the Annual liepoiis, the Foreign Missionary Chronicle^ 
1833-1836, and Ttco years in Upper India ; and still earlier, 
to the history of the venerable Synod of Pittsburgh. The 
synod at its first meeting, in 1802, in what was then the 
frontier of the country, organized itself as a missionary 
society, with its administrative committee, treasurer, etc., 
thus practically adopting the great idea of church work 
in missions. This true theory is now generally adopted. 
It was more fully formulated by the synod in 1831. It had 
a great deal to do with the first missions of our Church to 
the Indians, to Africa, and to India, as commenced by the 
synod and afterwards transferred to the Greneral Assembly. 
Its leading men and its members generally favored these 
foreign missions, though their own boards then contained 
numerous vacant churches and missionary districts ; and 
now no part of our country is better supplied with ministers 
and churches. 

The first two missionaries appointed by the Western 
Foreign Missionary Society, Messrs. William Reed and 
John C. Lowrie, were appointed in January, 1832 ; but 
they and their wives did not embark for India until 
May 29th, 1833. The limited funds of the Society caused 
this delay. They spent several of the intervening months 
preaching among the churches on the subject of missions. 
They arrived at Calcutta in October, 1833. Their general 

* This paper by Dr. Joha C. Lowri© appeared in the Record of 
December 1884. 



( 1C2 ) 

instructions mentioned the northern part of India as 
Btaudiiig- in need oi' missionaries ; but as little was then 
known in this country ui' the interior provinces, they were 
left free to go elsewhere in India, or to regions further 
east, as I'rovideuco might lead them. It was considered 
that in Calcutta they could learn where they should go. 
The Society incurred some degree of criticism for entering 
on so distant and expensive a mission in view of its limited 
income and its inadequate iuformatiou. It might liave been 
more justly criticised for eutrustiug suoh hirge discretion 
to men of such inexperience — young aud new. But the 
Directors of the Society were men of wisdom and large 
experience, and they represented churches eminent in faith 
and prayer. Limiting these remarks to a few subjects, 
we may note : 

1. The immeiliate work of the now missionaries was to 
choose their field of labor. In this counsel from on high 
was surely given to them. They met with friendly aid 
from gentlemen who had been stationed in the Upper 
Provinces, and from one, the lato Dr. Duff, who had been 
led to make special inquiries for missionary purposes in 
that region. It was then a region spiritually destitute. 
Northwest of Allahabad for nearly a thousand miles, among 
people estimated at from thirty to fifty millions, there were 
no i^uropeau or American missionaries, and but two East 
Indian brethren — one at Allahabad, the other at Delhi. The 
people were regarded as the most energetic for the Hindus. 
They were mostly worshippers of idols, but some were 
Mohammedans, equally v/ithout God and without hope in 
the world. The adjacent countries, north and west, were 
unoccupied by Christian men. The climate had certain 
advantages in regard to health. The way was considered 
open for missionary work. No other missionary board was 
expecting to enter this part of India. There were difficulties, 
but mainly such as the Gospel only could remove. The 
choioe was made of the north-^western provinces, looking 
particularly to the Punjab, the country between the rivers 
Sutlej and Indus. All our friends in Calcutta concurred 
in this decision, and Church at home afterwards approved it. 
To the Calcutta mission families the brethren felt deeply 
indebted for many kindness. Their sympathies were the 
more called forth by the great loss wluch the little company 



( 163 ) 

met with, a few weets after their arrival, in the death of 
one who was lovely in every grace, gifted with qualifications 
for eminent usefulness, everyway devoted as a missionary, 
but thus early in her years taken to be with Christ, " which 
is far better." And so the first possession of the mission 
was a grave, lighted by a blessed hope. 

2. The next duty of the missionaries was to reach their 
station at Ambala or Lodiana — preferably the former — both 
nearly 1,200 miles north-west from Calcutta, both regarded 
as frontierposts and as centres of wide influence. The 
journey can now be made by rail in two or three days. 
But then, by boat and tent, it required several months ; 
by palauquin, with relays of bearers, travelling day and 
night, in about a fortnight, but at a large expense for each 
traveller, and almost without baggage. The first plan was 
chosen, but several mouths must pass before a favorable 
time for the voyage of a thousand miles on the Ganges (six 
hundred direct distance) would come round. It was deemed 
advisable to wait ; meanwhile they could be studying 
the language of the north-western Hindus, for which 
excellent opportunities could be had in Calcutta. During 
these mouths of waiting and study the health of one of the 
bi'etliren began to show signs of serious and perhaps fatal 
illness. The disease gained strength, but seemed likely 
to continue for several years, hindering all active work. 
Under medical advice his return to this country with his 
devoted wife was eventually settled, and they embarked for 
this country, July 23, 1834. It was a severe trial to them 
both and to their colleague. It was a second dark ordering 
of Providence to the mission, now reduced from four 
members to but one. Nearly a year afterwards it was 
learned by the remaining member that his friend and class- 
mate had entered into rest not long after setting out on the 
voyage. He was kept in peace unto the end ; and his 
young widow was sustained by divine grace in her sore 
bereavement. His early removal was, however, not one 
that proved his consecration to have been without practical 
fruit. His excellent good sense and careful judgment 
wore traits of great service in deciding on the question 
first to be considered — that of the field to be occupied. 
And his life of sincere, humble, earnest piety made his 
example one to be followed by his successors. It is his 



( 1^5^ ) 

honor and reward that ho was one of the founders of 
Lodiana Mission. 

The survivor left Calcutta on the journey to the north 
west part of India July 25. His boat made the usual 
stopping places, such as Berhampore, Patna, Benares and 
Allahabad, always resting on the Sabbath, and arrived at 
Cawnpore October 9 — the city where so many of our 
missionaries and so many more English people, mostly 
women and children, were massacred during the rebellion 
of the Sepoys ; but all was peaceful there in 1834. The 
journey, after leaving the Ganges at Cawnpore, was made 
in a palanquin. Visits of a day or two were made at Agra 
and Delhi, and the traveller arrived at Lodiana Nov. 5. 

Ever so many things must be omitted in these brief notes. 
The long and tedious journey, its dangers on the great river, 
its solitariness in the midst of the innumerable people, 
its depressing daily sight of heathen life, its countless 
opportunities of speaking of Christ our Lord if only the 
gift of tongues had been acquired, and perhaps specially 
its often raising the question as to the wisdom of going 
so far into the interior and passing through so many 
provinces and cities then unoccupied by missionaries— these 
were things hard to bear, but in them all the careful choice 
was kept steadily in view. On the way certainly many 
encoui'aging things occurred, especially in the cordial and 
sympathetic interest taken in the new mission by European 
Christian people at the few stations ; and it is still believed, 
after so many years of observation, that the journey was 
not too long nor its discouragements too serious for the 
work that was given to the Church for its labors and 
prayers in Upper India. 

3. But these notes should refer specially to the Lodiana of 
1834, and a few things should be mentioned as of that date. 
It was then a city of about twenty thousand inhabitants, 
situated on a small tributary of the river Sutlej, the eastern 
boundary of the Punjab, from which it is but five miles 
distant. It was then the frontier military post of the British, 
having a civilian residency at one end of the city and the 
cantonments at the other, a mile or more apart, with a 
small but well-planned fort at one side. It was under the 
rule of a native cliiof, in tlie somewhat large region known 
as the Protected Sikh States—" Protected" by the British 



( 165 ) 

as "the paramount power" from the despotic grasp of 
Runjeet feiugb, the last great ruler of the Punjab. About 
a hundred oi' these protected states sent their vakeels, or 
representatives, to Ambala, the chief political agency of the 
English government in that region ; and its being thus a 
centre oi influence made Ambala the first choice of our 
missionaries as their station. They had permission from 
the governor-general in Calcutta to live at Ambala ; but for 
a reason that could not then be controlled it was necessary to 
go on to Lodiana, where a cordial welcome was received from 
the political agent, Captain afterwards Sir Claude Wade. 

In those days there was no dwelling-house to be rented, 
and after his recovery from serious illness the missionary 
obtained permission to occupy rooms in the officers' quarters 
in the fort. A year later, when the Bev. Messrs. James 
Wilson and John Newton and their wives arrived at 
Lodiana, it was found practicable to rent a house for a short 
time from a native gentleman, situated near the city on 
the opposite side from the fort. The "house question" 
was one of difficulty. It was so ordered that the native chief 
died early in 1835, as now recollected, and as he left no 
heirs his principality fell, according to native custom, to 
the British as the paramount power, and the city passed 
from native to foreign rule, with an immediate and large 
increase of population. Soon afterwards the grant of a 
small piece of land almost adjoining the city was made 
through the kind intervention of Captain Wade, on the 
usual terms, involving a small ground rent. It was at first 
a sandy, barren looking place ; but when seeded and the 
grain sprang up it was a beautiful little, field, promising a 
rich harvest. As first seen by the writer of these lines and 
last seen on the morning of his leaving Lodiana, it was 
an emblem of heathen barrenness, and then of the higher 
purpose and fruit to which it was predestined. 

The obtaining of this land was not, however, the first 
practical question of the mission, nor was it at all the most 
important. It must be remembered that the people of the 
north-west provinces were accustomed to times of misrule 
and violence, and were but entering on the stages of settled 
life after ages of turbulence. Moreover their European 
rulers, now adopting the policy of a liberal and beneficient 
administration of public affairs, were not generally ready to 



( 166 ) 

sanction Christiau schools, and dreaded the risk'of iutroda- 
cing luisbiouary education among the people. Especially 
was this the case in parts of the country which had not been 
long under their authority, and the protected Sikh States 
were only in part under their rule. It was not evident at 
that period that a Christian teacher in active service would 
be tolerated by bigoted and fanatical natives, nor was it 
surprising that even enlightened and friendly men should 
hesitate to encourage missionary work on the frontiers ; 
but the right of residence at Lodiana was secured from the 
highest authority, and the political agent was entirely 
cordial in favoring all judicious and practicable measures. 
lie had established a small school for instruction in English 
before the arrival of the missionary, expecting to transfer 
it to his charge ; but he preferred tliat it should still be 
conducted without including Christian instruction. Such 
instruction was of course essential to a missionary school. 
Moreover the school seemed to be almost indispensable to 
the beginning of evangelistic work in the circumstances 
then existing. It was a matter of much moment that a 
right decision should be made, and after frequent and 
friendly conversation on the subject the Christian character 
of the instruction was conceded. It was apparently a mi- 
nor question ; but for the fifty years that this school has 
been maintained the importance of the position then adop- 
ted has never been called in question. 

Other matters of moment had to be considered, especially 
as to stations to be occupied by new missionaries on their 
arrival. Infermation was sought, and after Messrs. Wilson 
and Newton arrived at Lodiana earnest consideration was 
given to this subject. It was still further considered in 
Calcutta in ISJG on the arrival of the third company of 
missionaries. Eventually, in the case of each station from 
Allahabad to Rawal Tindi, the places now occupied were 
taken in view of the leadings of Providence. Still other 
matters — religious services, native teachers and assistants, 
printing presses — might be referred to, but these notes are 
transgressing their appointed limits. 

In general, even a slight review of the earlier years of 
the work of our Church in India shows clearly the good 
hand of God upon it. From very small and humble begin- 
nings it has become a somewhat large woik. L)ay6 of 



( 167 ) 

darkness, seasons of perplexity, events full of trouble, times 
of weeping and tears, of humiliation, of unwilling returns 
of missionaries from the field, of sorrowful bereavements 
and disappointed hopes — all these mark the record from 
183-1 to 1884 ; but it is nevertheless a record of grace given 
from on high, of kind providences, of work well begun, of 
the gospel preached, of Christian schools taught, of the 
sacred Scriptui'es widely circulated, of hopeful conversions, 
of native churches and ministers, of the blessing of God 
upon the labors and prayers of his people in our country 
and in India, which call forth thanksgiving and praise. 
A bright and blessed future awaits this work of our Church, 
and grateful should all feel who may take any part in it 
for the sake and by the grace of Christ our Lord. So may 
we expect more and more encouragement in our work in 
India ; and when the next fifty years are ended far greater 
results will be recorded to the glory of Qod. 



22 



APPENDIX B. 



Remarks on the American Presbyterian JUiasions in North 
India and the Punjab* 

By J. Murdoch, LL. D. 

After heaving made the circuit of the India missions, 
from the Punjab to Cape Comorin for about twenty times 
during the last quarter of a century, I venture to say that 
the American Presbyterian Mission has as much, if not 
more, to show than any other mission in India unclt^r the 
same circumstances. The missions of the Church Mission- 
ary Society are among the oldest and largest in North 
India, and they have had able and devoted laborers, yet 
the senior secretary in London questions me as to the cause 
why their efforts had been attended with so few visible 
results. 

Mere statistics may be very delusive. One requires to 
be intimately acquainted with the details of the different 
missions before he can form a correct judgment regarding 
their comparative success. 

It is well known that the early Danish missionaries in 
South India had considerable numbers of what are termed 
"Bice Christians." I do not blame the missionaries ; they 
acted according to the best of their judgment, but they 
lacked experience. While English missionaries have avoid- 
ed this, there is no doubt that great numbers of the lower 
castes placed themselves under their care from the hope of 
protection from oppression. The land tenure in the South 
differs from that in North India, Zemindars and the 
higher castes have apparently (or at least had) the lower 
castes more at their mercy. The well-known missionary 
llhenius regularly employed a vakil, or native lawyer, to 
take up the cases of native Christians suffering from injus-- 
tioe. 



*Thi8 paper appeared in the Foreign Missionary of April, 1882. 



( 169 ) 

No blame is attached to the Tinnevely Missionaries, and 
there is provision for protecting those who placed themselves 
under Christian instruction ; only the facts should he known. 
Pettitt, one of them, expresses the fact thus : " God works 
by His providence as well as by His grace." Thousands 
placed themselves under the missionaries primarily with a 
view to protection, but the use of the means of grace, with 
God's blessiDg, led many to obtain what was far more 
valuable. 

The hope of rising in the social scale, in addition to the 
foregoing, operated a good deal in the Telugu country, 
where the converts of late years have been so numerous. 
Their caste name they considered opprobrious. When they 
became Christians they repudiated it, and claimed to be 
called Christians in legal notices. 

It is not said by any means that the above are the only 
motives, but those best acquainted with the native converts 
acknowledge that many came from what may be called 
mixed motives. 

There is only one city in Tinnevelly which may at all 
compare with those where the American Presbyterian Mis- 
sions have been located, and there the Church Missionaries 
have been comparatively unsuccessful. So far as I am 
aware, all the Brahmin converts in Tinnevelly might be 
reckoned on the fingers of one hand. 

Take the missions of the Free Church of Scotland, with 
laborers like Duff of Calcutta, Anderson of Madras, and 
Wilson of Bombay. In the shape of direct visible results 
they have no more to show than those of the American 
Presbyterian Board. And this remark applies to all mis- 
sions planted in cities, or under the same circumstances. 

The grand aim of all missionaries ought to be able to say 
with truth, ''Lord, we have done as Thou hast commanded.'* 
They may be constrained to say, "Who hath believed our 
report ?" but they are not responsible for results. 

Missionary labor is usually divided into three principal 
heads. 1. The direct preaching of the gospel. 2. Educa- 
tion. 3. The press. 

Only a few remarks may be made on the work of the 
American Presbyterian Mission under each division : 

1 . Perhaps no mission in North India has done more in 
the way of direct preaching to the heathen. 



( 170 ) 

2. Superior schools have been maintained in the princi- 
pal cities, and there has been greater care to preserve the 
evangelistic character, than, I am sorry to say, is some- 
times shown in British mission schools. Mr. Forman's is 
the most powerful Christian influence in Lahore. The 
girls' schools at Dehra and other places, and the Zenana 
laborers have also to be considered. 

3. By means of the press the American Presbyterian 
Missionaries have done as much in North India and the 
Punjab as all the other missionaries taken together for the 
diffusion of Christian truth through this agency. The 
Hindu Scriptures owe much to the labors of American 
missionaries, and have been chiefly printed at the Allahabad 
Press established by them. All the Punjab Scriptures at 
present in circulation were printed at the Lodiana Press, 
Kev. J. Newton being the translator. Large numbers of 
tracts have been circulated. Rev. W. F. Johnson is the 
most popular tract writer in India, and Rev. J. F. Ullmann 
has done good service in this and other ways. Commenta- 
ries and other works have been prepared ; the Christian 
Treasury, of which about twenty volumes have been issued, 
is a mine of instruction for the native church. 

Space does not permit me to go into details, but it may 
be said that, as a body, the American Presbyterian mission- 
aries have faithfully endeavored to carry out the " Great 
Commission." 

When Judson was asked regarding his hopes of the con- 
version of Burmah, he said, that they were " bright as the 
promises of Grod." The same promises apply to India. 
We do not indeed known when they will be fulfilled. A 
very long list of Old Testament workers " died in faith, 
not having received the promise." 

It may be that the churches may have long yet to wait 
for the conversion of the world. " God's mill grinds 
slow." Even the nominal conversion of the Roman Empire 
took centuries, and it is not surprising if the much larger 
population of India, w-elded together by caste, should take 
even a longer time to accept the gospel. The Hindus are a 
very gregarious people. They will move in masses. Christian 
truth is gradually spreading and changing popular ideas. 

The late Mr. Thomason, an esteemed Christian Lieutenant 
Governor of the N. W. P., expressed the following opinion: 



( 171 ) 

" If we carefully examine history we shall find that 
generations passed away in the gradual accomplishing- of 
objects which our impatient expectations wish to see crow- 
ded into the brief space of our own lives. We must bear 
in patience and hope, and see laborer after laborer pas3 
through the field, expectation after expectation disappoint- 
ed, and at length be content to pass ourselves from the 
stage in full faith and confidence that Grod, in His own 
way and in His own time, will bring about the great end 
which His truth is pledged to accomplish. Looking to the 
way in which Providence would ordinarily work such 
changes, I think we may expect a gradual preparation for 
any great natural change ; and then a rapid development 
whenever the change has decidedly commenced." 

Nowhere perhaps will the promise be more signally ful- 
filled. '' Who are these that fly as a cloud and as doves to 
their windows ?" than in India. 

But Grod demands faith as a condition of success. If the 
feeling is that the cities of Hinduism are walled up to 
heaven and efforts hopeless, let such churches return from 
the field and leave the enterprise to others. But surely 
this ought not to apply to what is now the largest 
Protestant nation in the world, the richest in material 
resources. 

It is allowed that other parts of the globe, as China, 
"The Dark Continent," etc., have also claims. China no 
doubt deserves the first place, but India comes next. "Thia 
ought ye to have done and not to leave the other undone." 



ArrENDIX c. 



Number of converts in our India churches* 

This number is small campared with the number in some 
of the other missions of the Board. It has indeed increased, 
being now twice as large as it was a few years ago. It is 
yet but small — less than one thousand, as stated in the last 
reports. How is this to be accounted for ? 

Not by mission fields more widely open, nor enjoying bet- 
ter governmental protection, nor giving more ready access 
to the people ; nor yet in fields having better laborers, — for 
our India brethren are men of the same families at home, 
church and Christian experience, theological training and 
earnest consecration, as are their fellow laborers in China 
Japan and other countries. We do not deny, on the contrary 
we believe, that the sovereignty of the Holy Spirit, which 
suffered not the apostle to go into Bithynia, regards with 
infinite wisdom the state of things in India, but does not 
yet grant large visible success ; yet we may not doubt that 
there are the best reasons of this apparent delay ; and we 
are sure that the real progress towards success is far greater 
than mere numerical statistics can show. 

The conditions of gospel work vary greatly in every 
country. Compare the Japanese with the Chinese, for 
example, or the Karens with the Hindus, or difierent castes 
in India with each other, especially the poor with those 
of high ancestral rank. It is, we think, still true that the 
Gospel makes most progress among the poor. Among the 
Hindus this is manifest ; compare the Kols or the Chuhras 
with the Brahmans, or the Teloogoos with the liajpoots. 
Apart from this, there may be something to hinder the 
acceptance of Christianity in the fondness of the educated 
classes for metaphysical studies, ending too often in pan- 
theism ; in their pride of a vast literature, with all its 
sensual histories of goddesses and gods ; in their ancient 
conservatism ; besides the common dislike of human nature 
in its fallen state to a holy religion. 



*By Dr. J. C. Lowrie in the Record of March 1886. 



( 173 ) 

But India differs from all other heathen countries in 
its dreadful system of caste. This system now holds in 
bondage all the people in greater or less degree, and usually 
in so great a degree as to make every convert to Christ an 
outcast — cut of from home, family and friends, deprived 
of property and reduced to poverty, persecuted and utterly 
despised. It is no wonder that Christian converts are so 
few, and for the most part so little able to support their 
own churches. The times are, however, changing. The 
bonds of caste are weakening, owing to many causes ; but 
this terrible bondage is still a great barrier to the spread 
of the Grospel among the Hindus. All the subdivisions of 
caste, over a hundred, have their adherents — each inter- 
linked with all the families and members of his own class. 
Even Muhammadans and Sikhs observe caste usages ; and 
so the land is held in bondage to the great enemy. 

In 1834 one of the missionaries of the Board wrote that 
no great number of Hindus could ordinarily be expected 
to become Christians until this system of caste was broken. 
In the meantime conversions would probably be few and 
occur in isolated cases ; but that eventually caste itself 
would become a great means of its own overthrow. This 
would result from the leavening influence of the Q-ospel 
by the power of the Holy Spirit, reaching each member 
of each subdivision ; but no one moving till all moved, and 
then conversions would be numbered by thousands and 
scores of thousands. This impression has gained strength. 
It is held more firmly now than it was then. It has been 
signally exemplified. 

Our blessed Saviour's ministry on earth was largely a 
■work of sowing- seed not yielding a large harvest at first. 
But it was followed by the day of Pentecost. Thus it was 
in the land of Israel. So it is still in far less degree, but 
there shall be, and perhaps soon, days of Pentecost in India. 
Indeed, in this point of view the work of missions among 
the Hindus is far more successful than it is among most 
other heathen peoples. 



174 A Tahular view af all the foreign missionaries— male and female, — who have Been 





Beginning 


of Decade. 


Access 


ions during 








Decade. 


By 




Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


Men 


CO 

00 

1— 1 

CO 

n 

00 

o 

©" 

13 
oj 
o 
<v 

Q 

CO 






James McEwen 
J. Wilson 
J. H. Morrison 
H. R. Wilson 
J. Warren 
J. L. Scott 
J. E. Freeman 
J. C. Eankin 
W.H. McAuley 
J. Owen 
J. Wray 
J. J. Walsh 


Mrs. McEwen 
Mrs. Wilson 
Mis. Morrison 
Mrs. Wilson 
Mrs. Morri9on(2d 
Mrs. Warren 
Mrs. Scott 
Mrs. Freeman 
Mrs. Rankin 
Mrs. McAuley 
Miss J.Vanderveer 
Mrs. Wray 
Mrs. Walsh 
Mrs. Owen 




P4 


12 


14 




co' 
>o 

CD 

00 

a 

i 

. 

13 
as 
o 

o 

Q 

fl 
O 


J. Wilson 
J. Warren 
J. L. Scott 
J. E. Freeman 
J. 0. Rankin 
W.H. McAuley 
J. Owen 
J. Wrav 
J. J. Walsh 


Mrs. Wilson 
Mrs. Warren 
Mrs. Scott 
Mrs. Freeman 
Mrs. Rankin 
Mrs. McAuley 
Mrs. Owen 
Mrs. Wray 
Mrs. Walsh 


A. H. Seeley 
D. Irving 
R. M. Munnis 
A. A. Hodge 
J F. Ullmann 
R. S. Fullerton 
D. E.Campbell 
Lawrence Hay 
H. W. Shaw 
R.E.Williams 
A. 0. Johnson 


Mrs. Seeley 
Mrs. Irving 
Mrs. Hodge 
Mrs. Fullerton 
Mrs. Campbell 
Mrs. Hay 
Mrs. Shaw 
Mrs. Munnis 
Mrs. Ullmann 
Mrs. Scott (2d) 
Mrs. Johnson 
Miss Browning. 




CO 


9 
J. L. Scott 
J. E. Freeman 
J. Owen 
J. J. Walsh 
R. M. Munnis 
J. F. Ullmann 
R. S. Fullerton 
D. E. Campbell 
Law. Hay 
R. E. Williams 
A. 0. Johnson 


9 


II 


12 




CO 

CO 
00 

T 

CD 

00 
© 

CJ 

o 
o 

Q 
It 


Mrs. Scott 
Mrs. Freeman 
Mrs. Owen 
Mrs. Walsh 
Mrs. Munnis 
Mrs. Ullman:; 
Mrs. Fullerton 
Mrs. Campbell 
Mrs. Hay 
Mrs. Johnson 


R. McMullm 

A. Brodbead 
W. F. Johusou 

B. D. WyckofE 
E. Sayre 

S. H. Kellogg 
J.M.Alexander 


Mrs. McMullin 
Mrs. Brodhead 
Mrs. Johnson 
Mrs. Wyckoff 
Mrs. Sayre 
Mrs. Kellogg 
Mrs. Alexander 


J. E. Freeman 
D.E. Campbell 
A. 0. Juhusou 
U. McMullin 


H 


11 


10 


7 


7 


4 



connected with the Furrukhahad Mission* duting the fifty years, 1836 ^o 1886. 175 



Losses. 



Death. 



Women. 



By Withdrawal. 



Men. 



Mrs Morrison 'J. McEwen 
Mrs. Morri8on(2d)'H. R. Wilson 



Mrs. Freeman 
Mrs. Scott 
Mrs. Seeley 



Mrs. Freeman 
Mrs. Campbell 
Mrs. Johnson 
Mrs. McMuUin 
Mrs. Owen 



D. Irving 
J. Wray 
A. A. Hodge 
J. Wilson 
W.H.McAuley 
J. C. Rankin 
A. H. Seeley 
W. H. Shaw 



Women. 



Mrs. J. McEwen 
Miss J. Vanderve 
Mrs. Wilson 



By Transfer. 



Men. 



J. H. Morrison 
er 



Lawrence Hay 
R. E. Williams 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Irving 

Wray 

Hodge 

Wilson 

McAuley 

Rankin 

Shaw 



Mrs. Hay 



Women. 



Miss Browning 
(afterwards Mrs 
Herron) 



R. M. Munnis 
R. S. Fullerton 



Mrs. Munnis 
Mrs. Fullerton 



* For a tabular view of the Lodiana Mission, see page 74. 
23 



17G A Tabular view of all the fon'ig>i missionaries — male ami female, — u-ho have been 



P^ 



Beginning of Decade. 



Men. 



J. L. Scott 
J. Owen 
J. J. Walsh 
J. F. TJllmann 

A. Brodhead 
W. F. Johnson 

B. D. Wyckoff 
E. Saj're 

S. H. KoUogg 
J.M. Alexander 



10 



Women. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Scott 

Ulhnann 

Walsh 

Brodhead 

Johnson 



Acceseions during Decade. 



By 



Men. 



WyckcfE |J 
Sayro ^J 
M. Walsh 
Kellogg 
Alexander 



Heyl 

S. Wynkoop 

Tracy. 

A. Seeley 

J Lucas, 

F. Holcomb 

Warren 



10 



IJ. F. TJllmann 
A. Brodhead 
W. F. Johnson 
S. H. Kellogg 
J.M. Alexander 
F. Hevl 
T. S.Wynkoop 
T. Tracy 
Q-. A. Seeley 
J. J. Lucas 
J. F. Holcomb 
J. Warren 



P^ 



12 



Mrs. TJllmann 
Mrs. Brodhead 
Mrs. Johnson 
Mrs. Kellogg 
Mrs. Alexander 
Mrs. Tracy 
Mrs. Luoas 
Mis. Holcomb 
Miss Belz | 

Mrs. Warren 
Miss L. Walsh 
., M. N.Wilsou 

S.SewardM.D 
Mrs.S.J. Miller 
Miss A.E.Scott 

M. Hardie 



16 



Women. 



Mrs. Owon (2d) 
Miss E. Walsh 
Miss N. Dickey 

(afterwards Mrs 

Tracy) 
Miss L. Walsh 
Miss M. Eva Sly 

(afterwards Mrs. 

Lucas) 
Mrs. J F. Holcomb 
Miss 0. Belz 
Mrs. Warren (2d) 
Miss P. A. Brink 
MissM. N.Wilson 
Miss S. Seward, 
Mrs. S. J. Millar 
Miss A. E. Scott 
Miss M. Hardie 



J. Owon 



Men. 



14 



J. C. R. Ewing 
J. S. Woodside 
G. W. PoUock 
Henry Form an 
T. E. Inghs 



Mrs. Seeley 
Mrs. Ewing 
Miss E. Seeley 
MissS. Hutchinson 
Miss F. Perloy 
Mrs. Woodside 
Miss Woodside 
Mies Butler 
Mrs. Pollock 
Mrs. Inglis 
Miss J. F.Bell M.D 
Miss Hutcheson 



12 



J. Warren 



connected with the FurmJchahad Mission during the fifty years, 1836 to 1886. 177 



Losses. 



Death. 


By Withdrawal. 


By Transfer. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women. 


Miss E. Walsh 


J. L. Scott 
E. Sayre 
J. J. Walsh 
B. D. Wj'ckoff 


Mrs. Scott 
Mrs. Sayre 
Mrs. Owen 
Miss M. Walsh 
Mrs. Walsh 
Mrs. Wyckoff 
Miss Brink, M.D. 






1 


4 


7 




Mrs. Kellopg 
Miss M.N.Wilson 


A. Brodhead 
3. H. Kellogg 
F. Heyl 
T. S. Wynkoop 


Mrs. Brodhead 
Miss L. Walsh 
Mrs. S. J. Millar 
Miss M. Hardie 
Miss F. Perley 
Miss Butler 


J. F. UUmann 


Miss A.E. Scott 


2 


4 


6 


1 


1 



( HB ) 



^ 

^ 



O 
M 

H 
O 





Balance 

of 

Gain. 


Men 

and 

"Women 


2 


■* 


1 


00 


Ol 


o 

CO 


o 


00 

OD 
O 


Men 
and 
Women 


00 


05 


CO 


CO 


vn 


»- 


O 


Men 

and 

Women 


CO 

(M 




■*! 


ei 


r- 


o 

1-H 


Remain- 
ing at end 

of the 
Decade. 


a 

a 

1 


C5 


o 


o 


CO 


o 


a 


C3> 


- 


o 


(M 


- 




CO 

» 

03 

CO 

o 


1 
GO 

§ . 

pq 


a 
3 

i 


O 


- 


<N 


O 


- 


Tj< 


a 


-^ 


o 


C^ 


o 


^ 


T}1 


1 


a 

<D 

B 


CO 


t- 


- 


t^ 


CO 






<M 


00 


O* 


■^ 


T*i 


O 


By Death. 


a 

a 

o 


CI 


n 


O 


- 


C>l 


CO 


0) 


o 


o 


TJ< 


'- 


- 


CO 


Acces- 
sions 
during 

the 
Decade. 


a 
<i> 

a 

o 


rt< 


Ol 


1— 


tl 


OJ 


Oi 
>t3 


a 


(M 


- 


I- 


l- 


lO 




Beginning 
of the 
Decade. 


Men Women 


O 


OS 


o 


o 


CO 




O 


a> 


= 


o 


Oi 




raojj 




CO 
J?* 
o 

CO 

CO 


CO 

o 

CO 


CD 

CO 
o 

CO 


CO 

1— 

o 

CO 
CO 


CO 

00 
o 

CO 


3 

o 
H 




•epBoea 




>-i 


»— t 

M 


1— 1 
t— 1 

M 




> 



List of ordained foreign missionaries who have ieen connected with the 
Famikhahad Mission from 1836 to 1886. 



179 



Names of Miss. 



James McEweu 
James Wilson 
J. H. Morrison 
Henry R Wilson 
Joseph Warren 
James L. Scott 
John E. Freeman 
John 0. Rankin 
William H. McAuley 
Joseph Owen 
John Wray 
J. J. Walsh 
A. H. Seeley 
David Irving 
E.. M. Munnis 
A. A. Hodge. 
J. F. Ullmann 
R. S. Fullerton 

D. E. Campbell 
Lawrence Hay 
H. W. Shaw 

E. E. Williams 
A. O. Johnson 
E. M. McMuUin 

A. Brodhead 
W. F. Johnson 

B. D. Wyckoff 

E. H. Sayre 
S. H. Kellogg 
J. M. Alexander 

F. Heyl 

T. S Wynkoop 
T. Tracy 
G-. A. Seeley 
J. J. Lucas 
J. F. Holcomb 
J. C. R. Ewmg 
J. S. Woodside 

G. W, Pollock 
Henry Forman 
T. E. Inglis 



Year of 


Year of 


joining 


with- 


Mission. 


drawal . 


1836 


1838 


1838(1) 


1851 


1838 


1843 (4) 


1838 


1846 


1839 


1854 (2) 


1839 


1867 


1839 




1840 


1848 


1840 


1851 


1840 




1842 


1849 


1843 


1872 


1847 


1854 


1847 


1849 


1847 




1848 


1850 


1848 


1882 (4) 


1850 




1850 




1850 


1857 


1850 


1855 


1852 


1861 


1855 




1857 




1859 


1878 


1860 




1860 


1874 (5) 


1863 


1869 


1865 


1876 


1866 




1868 


1881 


1869 


1876 


1869 




1870 




1870 




1872 (1) 




1879 




1881 (1) 




1881 




1884 




1884 





Year of 
Death. 



(3) 



1845 

1883 
1882 

1877 
1880 
1857 

1882 
1870 

1884 

1885 
1861 



1865 
1857 (3) 



1857 
1857 



(3) 
(3) 



Present address. 



New York City. 



Basking Ridge, New 
Jersey. 



Amenia, New York. 



Princeton, New Jersey. 
Rawal Piudi, India. 



Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Bridgeton, New Jersy 
Washington Pa. 
Sabathoo. 
Garden Plain, 111. 
Toronto, Canada. 
Allahabad. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Washington City. 
Etawah, India. 
Mainpuri ,, 
Allahabad ,, 
Jhansi ,, 

Saharanpur ,, 
Fatehgarh ,, 
Mainpuri ,, 
Allahabad ,, 
Fatehgarh ,, 



(1) Transferred fiom the Lodiaua Mission. 

(2) Retired in 1854 and returned in 1872. 

(3) Massacred in tlie Mutiny at Cawnpore. 

(4) Traufeferred to Ludiana Mission. 

(5) Transferred to Lodiana Mission 1883. 



180 List of nnmarried Lady Missionaries who have been connected mth the 
Farmkhabad Missioti/rom 1836 to 1886. 





Year of 


Year of 


Year of 
Death. 




Names. 


joining 
Mission. 


with- 
drawal. 

1846 


Address. 


Miss Jane Vanderveer 


1810 






,, Mary L. Browning (1) 


1856 


1857 


1863 




„ Marion Walsh (2) 


18»i5 


1867 




Ranoekhet, India 


,, Emma Walsh 


1868 




1869 




„ Elizabeth Walsh (3) 


1870 


1882 




Tezpur, Assam. 


i N. M. Dickey 


1870 








" 1 afterwards Mrs. Tracy 








Etawah. 


' Mary Eveline Sly 
" afterwards Mrs. Lucas 










1871 






Allahabad. 


,, Christine Belz 


1872 






Etawah. 


„ P. A. Brink M. D. 


1872 


1874 






,, Sara Seward M. U. 


1873 






Allahabad, 


,, Mary Nevius Wilson 


1873 




1879 




„ A. E. Scott (4) 


1874 


1876 




Landour. 


,, M. Hardie 


1874 


1876 






Mrs. S. J. Millar 


1874 


1876 






Miss Elizabeth Seeley 


1879 






Mainpuri. 


,, Sara S Hutchinson 


1879 






Philadelphia. 


,, Fannie Perley 


1879 


1882 




Washington City, 


,, J. Woodside (5) 


1880 






Fatehgarh. 


,, Butler 


1880 


1881 




Peoria III. 


„ J. F. Bell. M. D. 


1 885 






Fatehgurh. 


,, S. Hutcheson 


1886 






Mainpuri. 



(1) Afterwards Mrs. Herron of Lodiana Mission. 

(2) ,, ,, Lambert of the London Missionary Society. 

(3) ,, ,, Smithoman of the S. P. G. Society, Assam. 

(4) Transferred to the Woodstock School. 

(5) Transferred from the Lodiana Mission. 

A word as to these tables. (1) Nineteen missionaries have died while connec- 
ted with the Mission. Of theso, eight (four ordained missionries with their 
wives) were massacred at Cawnporo in the Mutiny of 1857. 

(2) Four ordained missionaries served over twenty-five years ; eleven served 
fifteen years ; three served ten years ; sixteen, five years, and five, two years. 

(3) Of the unmarried lady missionaries, three served ten years and over, 
and five served five years and over. 

(4) Since 1868, eighteen unmarried lady missionaries have been added to 
the Mission, of whom two have died; three have married missionaries and 
are still in India ; five have withdrawn from India ; and eight remain in the 
field. 

(5) Since 1868, eleven ordained missionaries have been added to the Mission 
of whom one has died ; two have withdrawn from India ; and eight remain. 

(6) Seven daughters and one son, children of missionaries named aboye have 
returned to India as missionaries. 



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INDEX. 



Abdoollah. 40. 98 

Afghans, 9, 15, 98 

Ahmad Shah, 40 

Alexander, J. M., 132, 134, 139. 

141, 143. 148 
Alexander Mrs., 137 
Anthony Adam Mrs., 123 
Annee, 20 
Area oi Lodiana Mission, 6 



B 



Bacon, Miss, 63, 65, 66 

Baptism, conditions of, 53 

Bitrker, AV. P., 153 

Bazar Preaching, 22 

Beatty Cnarles. 22 

Beatty Miss, 66 

Belz, Miss, 139 

Bentinck Wm. (Lord), 81 

Blunt, Miss, 141 

Boarding Schools, 62, 64 

Bowley Rev., 3 

BrodheadA., 129, 130, 132, 134 

137, 142, 148 
Brink, Miss, 139, 142 
Brown Mrs., 141 
Browning Miss, 124 
Buildings Mission, 87 
Butler, Miss, 147 







Cabul, 50 

Calderwood, W., 20, 33, 90. 123 
Caldwell, J., 13, 35, 68 
Caleb, J. J. 126, 131, 138 
Campbell, J. E., 10. 35, 39, 67, 

108 
Campbell. D. E., 120, 126. 
Carletou, M. M., 22, 37, 61 

„ M. B., 39 
Chatterjee, K. C, 17, 33, 61, 85 



Chitamber, Eajaram, 148 
Clerk George, 50 
Clay, Miss, 25 
Courau Major. 15 
Colporteurs, 49 
Converts, 53. 156, 173 
Craig James, 109 

,, Mrs. 116 

„ Miss, G3, 136 

D 

Das Ishwari, 133 
Davis, Miss, 79, 107 
Deyrah, 14.89 
Dhokul Par.shad, 127 
Dhulip Singh 45, 124 
Dickey, Miss, 135, 136, 139 
Duff, A,, 111, 162 

E 

Education, 27 

English Lectures, 23 

Evans, Miss, 64 

Ewiug, J. C. E., 67, 146, 147 



Ferris. G. H. 153, 155 

Firozpur, 17. 99 

Forman C.W., 13, 23, 170 

„ Dr. 18, 39 

„ H. 179 
Foster, Miss, E Jane 123 
Freeman, J. E., Ill, 116, 121, 

125 

„ Mrs., 118 
French Bishop, 24 
Fullerton R. S., 120, 122, 125, 

127, 128, 131 

,, Mrs., 122 

,, Miss, 145 



11 



INDEX. 



G 

Ghornwalift. 19 
Gokkiiath. 11, 33, TO 

.. Mips Mary 02 
Goheeii, J. M. 153 
Government favour, 80 
Graham, J. P., 163, 154 
Green Willis. 39 
Greenfield, Miss, 24 
Greeiiway, 3 
Gwalior, 141 

H 

Hardie. Miss. M., 142, 143 
Hmh Jobn, lis, 131 
Hay. L , 120. 121. 125 
Hay ^liss Isabella, 1 1 1 
Herxon, I)., 62, 65, 123 

,, Miss, 63 
Heyl, F., 134, 135, 142, 147 
Hodgf, A. A.. 118, 120 
Hodgep, R , 27 
Holcomb, J. F., 79, 135, 136, 138 

140, 147 
Hosbyarpur, 17, 88 
Houston, J. F. 128 
Hull, J. J., 153, 154 
Hutchinson Miss S. S , 146 
Hutchison Miss, S. 180 



Inglip, T. E., 179 
Irviug, D. 117, 118 



Jamieeon, J. M., 10, 12, 68, 79, 

lOS 
Janvier. L., 47, 113 

,, Mrs., 35 
Jhansi, 140 
Johnson liishop, 24 

,, A. C. 123. 124. 125 

,, W F., 129, 130, 132, 134 

137, 142, 148 
Jugadhree, 19 
Jugraon. 19 
Juliander, 11, 12, 82, 88. 



K 

Kellogg. R. H., 132, 134, 137, 

139, 143, 144 

,, Mrs., 137, 143 
Kelso. A P., 47, 135 

„ Mrs., 63 
Khunnah, 19 
Kolhapur, 151, 181 
Kupoorthala, 16 
Kussoor, 18 



Lad\ra, 20 
Lahore 13. 29, 88 
Lai Mohan, 128, 141 
Lambert, J. A. 133 
Languages, 6 
Lawrence Henry, 13 

,, John, 13 

Leavitt, E., 79 
Leper Asvlums, 42 
Lodiana, 4, S8, 164 

,. Mission members of 74 
Looweiithal J., 16, 123 
Lowrie "Walter, lo7 

,, J. C. 4, 8, 105—8, 160, 172 
Lucas, J. J., loo, 136, 147 

M. 

Madden, Dr., 110 
Makhzan i Masihi, 134 
Martyn Henry, 118 
Mainpuri. 114. 126 
McAulev, W. H., Ill, 118, 120 
McComb, J. M., 64 
McEwen, J., 108, 109 
Mclnto.^h. 3, 109, 116 
McMullen, E., 124. 125 
Medical Missions, 37, 165 
Millar, Mrs.. 141, 145 
Missions in N. India, 3 
Mission meetings, 71 
Afissionaries List of 74, 174, 181 
Montgomery. R., 13, 31, 83 
Morris, K., 47. 109 
Morrieou, J. H., 15, 109, 111, 
113, 117 

Mrs. 110, 63 

W.J. P., 19 



INDEX. 



111. 



Morrison, B, 75 
Morrison Miss, 135 
Morinda, 19 
Munnis, R.M., 117, 120, 126, 128 
Murree, 18 
Muzaffarnagi^ar. 20 
Myers, J. 11.", 132 
,, Mrs., 35 
McGinnis Miss, A. M., 142, 153 

Miss, A. B., 153 
Murdoch, J., 168, 172 
Mutiny, The, 49, 125, 128 



N 



Native Christians, 55 

Nelson Miss, J., 63, 138 

Newspapers, 52 

Newton, J. 8, 13,46, 1U7, 165, 166 

Mrs., 36 

Dr. J., 17, 39, 44 

C. B., 47, 134 

Mrs.. 42 

E. P., 64 
Mrs., 42 

F. J., 18, 39 135 
Nundy Gopi Nath 114, 123, 

126, 137 



Occupations of Native Christians, 

59, 157 
Orbison, J. H., 120 
Orphanages. 34, 149, 156 
Outlook, 90, 159 
Owen, J., Ill, 116, 116.117,121, 

124, 128, 133, 135, 136 

„ Mrs., 132, 133 



Patton, Mies, 147, 154 
Panhala, 152 
Pearce, W. H., 106 
Pendleton, Miss. 63 
Perley, Miss, 164 
Perkins, 24 
Personal Security, 3 
Political State of India, 1 
Pollock, G. W., 147 
Poor houses. 42 
Porter, J., 47, 68, 108, 



Portor, Mrs. 35 
Pratt. Miss. 63, 64, 65 
Preaching, 22, 25, 155 
Prem Masih. 128 
Press Lodi;ina, 46 
Presbyteries, 67, 157 

B 

Rain at Allahabad, 142 
Ran jit Siuijh, 37, 165 
Rankin, J.^C. Ill, 115 
Ratuagiri, 152 
Rawal Pmdi 15. 87 
Retd, W.. 4, 79, 105, 161 
Report Mission, 71 
liichards, 3 
Rogers, W. S., 10, 68 
Rooper, 19 

8 

Sabathu. 10, 88 

Saharanpore, 9, 89 

Sain Kower. 20 

Sanataria, 79, 159 

Suntoke Majra, 20 

Sangli, 152 

Savre, E. H. 130, 132, 133, 135 

Schools, 27 

,, 60, 157 
,, for women. 31 
Scott, J. L., Ill, 111, 118, 120, 

125., 128,, 131, 146 
Scott, Mrs., 65, 117, 123, 145 

., Miss, 65, 142, 145 
Seeley, A. H. 117, 123 

„ 'Mrs., 123 

,, G. A., 135, 136, 143 146 

,, Miss, 146 
Seiler. G. W., 135, 136, 153, 154 
Seward, Miss, 140, 147 
Shaw, H. M , 120, 124 
Sly, Miss, 138, 139 
Synod of India, 68 



Tedford, L. B.. 154 
Theological School. 66 
Thiede. Miss, 33, 44 
Thomaaon, J., 121 



IV 



INDEX. 



Thompson, J., 3 
Thompsuu, Miss, 135 
Tracy, T., 135, 139, 140, 147 
Tiavellui^' in India, 2 
Trerelyau, C, H 



Vandervccr, Miss, 111, 110 
Velte, H., 74 
Village Preaching, 24 
Village Christians 57 
Volunteer workers, 55 

W 

Wade, CM. 27,81, 105 
Walsh, J. J., 115, 120, 124, 129 

132, 135, 138 

„ Mrs , 131. 137 

,, Miss M., 133 



Waleh, Miss E., 135 

„ Miss L., 137, 143, 145, 148 
Warren, J., Ill, 112, 110, 121, 

122, 140, 141, 143 

,. Mrs , 140, 144 
Week oi prayer, 72 
Wheeler, Capt., 110 
Wherry, E. M., 47, 04, 07, 134 

,, Miss, 03 
Wilder, E. O. 152, 153, 150, 159 
Williams, 11. E., 122, 130 
Wilson, J., 10, 40, 107, 110, 112, 

115, 120, 104, 105 

„ U. 11. 109, 115, 133 

„ Miss, 140, 140 
Woodside, J. S, 14, 10, 17, 147 

., Miss, 03, 147 
Woodstock School, 09, 75, 144 
Wray, J. 113, 117, 118 
Wyhe, T. S., 20 
Wynkoop, T. S., 134, 13b, 143 



DATE DUE 








































































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DEMCO 38-297 




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